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Most early practitioners of engineering drawings
such as Leonardo were also artists.

Leon Battista Alberti wrote two works that
explored the need to incorporate more Euclidian
geometry in contemporary drawings.

Engineering drawing began to evolve more rapidly
in the late 18th century and picked up speed with
the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century.

Universal Drafting Machine was introduced in

Leonardo da Vinci Machine for Cutting Files

Creating an Aircraft Master Layout
General Motors Design Room

Lower cost computers that could be operated directly by
engineering departments began to appear in the mid 1950s.

The beginnings of CAD can be traced to year 1957, when Dr.
Patrick J. Hanratty developed PRONTO, the first commercial
numerical control programming system.

In 1960, Ivan Sutherland MIT's Lincoln Laboratory created
SKETCHPAD, which demonstrated the basic principles and
feasibility of computer technical drawing.
Ivan Sutherland with SKETCHPAD

Most CAD software programs were still 2D replacements
for drafting, with the main benefits to manufacturers being:
i) reduced drawing errors
ii) increased reusability of drawings.

In 1960s CAD software was developed by internal groups
at large automotive and aerospace manufacturers.
General Motors DAC-1
Mercedes-Benz SYRCO
Nissan CAD-1
Toyota TINCA
Lockheed CADAM

1969 MAGI released Syntha Vision, first
commercially available solid modeler program.

In 1989 T-FLEX and later Pro/ENGINEER
introduced CADs based on parametric engines.

In 1982 the first CAD software for
personal computers - AutoCAD
Virtually no product, building, electronic
component or system or factory is
designed today in a developed country
without the use of this technology.

Design engineers do analysis today that a
few years ago was only done by highly
specialized professionals.
Main CAD building blocks
Object model
Modeling kernel
First CAD sofware for PCs. (1982)
AutoCAD was derived from a 1977 program
called Interact CAD.
In 1980s AutoCAD functioned by using
simple lines and circles.
Starting in 2007 it has much more advanced
3D tools that enables greater modelling and
exploration with high quality.
Latest : AutoCAD 2014
File Format : .dwg
AutoCAD user interface :
Initially named CATI (Conception Assiste
Tridimensionnelle Interactive French for
Interactive Aided Three dimensional Design )
This is icon based CAD software.
Cost wise it is higher then pro/e, solid edge
Apart from CAD it is having modules in
CATIA user interface :

NX is an interactive Computer-Aided Design, Computer-Aided
Manufacturing, and Computer-Aided Engineering
(CAD/CAM/CAE) system.

The CAD functions automate the normal engineering, design, and
drafting capabilities found in today's manufacturing companies.

The CAM functions provide NC programming for modern
machine tools using the NX design model to describe the finished

The CAE functions provide a number of product, assembly, and
part performance simulation abilities, across a broad range of
engineering disciplines.
NX UNIGRAPHICS user interface :
Formerly known as Pro/ENGINEER

A parametric, integrated 3D CAD/CAM/CAE
solution created by Parametric Technology
Corporation (PTC)

It was the first to market with parametric,feature-
based, associative solid modeling software.

Provides solid modeling, assembly modelling and
drafting, finite element analysis, and NC and tooling
functionality for mechanical engineers.
CREO PARAMETRIC user interface :
Solid Edge: It is developed by UGS. This is also
icon based software.
History" or Regeneration based modeling
Though it is very user friendly, it is having some
drawbacks like: user cannot see how the edit
will interact with its subsequent features, since
while editing it roll backs
"Rapid Blue" technology helps the user to create
complex shapes in an intuitive and easy way.
SOLID EDGE user interface :
Solidworks is a direct competitor of Solid edge.
It is economical and user friendly.

Developed by Dassault Systems

SolidWorks is a Parasolid-based solid modeler,
and utilizes a parametric feature-based approach
to create models and assemblies.
SOLID WORKS user interface :
DraftSight is a proprietary freeware 2D
computer-aided design |(CAD) software
Developed by Dassault Systmes and lets
users create, edit and view .dwg an
AutoCAD DXF files.
DraftSight allows users to access DWG/DXF
files, regardless of which CAD software was
originally used to create them.
According to industry estimates, there are
more than three billion DWG legacy files
ANSYS offers engineering simulation solution
sets in engineering simulation that a design
process requires.
The company was founded in 1970 by Dr. John
A. Swanson as Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc.
Its primary purpose was to develop and market
finite element analysis software for structural
physics that could simulate static(stationary),
dynamic (moving) and heat transfer (thermal)
LabVIEW(Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation
Engineering Workbench) is a platform and
development environment for a visual
programming language from National
The graphical language is named "G".
LabVIEW is commonly used for data
acquisition, instrument control, and industrial
automation on a variety of platforms.

Rhinoceros 3D

The software is commonly used for industrial
design, architecture, marine design, jewelry design,
automotive design, CAD / CAM, rapid prototyping,
reverse engineering, product design as well as the
multimedia and graphic design industries

Rhino specializes in free-form non-uniform rational
B-spline (NURBS) modeling.

Its ability to import and export over 30 file formats,
which allows Rhino to act as a 'converter' tool
between programs in a design workflow.
Wheels created using Rhino
Model created using Rhino
Other softwares :
Advantages of CAD
Faster and more accurate drawings.
More flexibility and varieties.
Simpler editing and modification of existing
Easier and lesser efforts in dimensioning.
Consistent quality of lines and lettering.
Easy electronic storage with less space
Easy transmission of data to other
Easy collaboration on local area networks and
the web.
Disadvantages of CAD
Investment in CAD hardware and
Learning of software package.
Computer crashes and data loss.