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Keep on Movin’ On!

3.8 Describe Active Transport


3.9 Determine what factors impact whether a substance will pass
through a membrane.
Review

• We have gone over many different kinds of


passive transport.

• Do you remember what they are?


• Diffusion
• Osmosis
• Ion Channels
• Facilitated Diffusion
Review
• Diffusion – the movement of a substance
from high concentration to low
concentration

• Osmosis – the diffusion of water through a


selectively permeable membrane

• Ion channels – help move charged


particles down their concentration
gradient

• Facilitated Diffusion – uses transport


proteins, called carrier proteins, to move
large molecules down their concentration
gradient across the cell membrane
Active Transport
• But sometimes charged particles can move UP
their concentration gradient
• Since opposites attract this can happen on its
own
• But sometimes the cell needs important sugars
and amino acids that have a lower
concentration outside the cell
• If molecules are not charged can they still move
UP their concentration gradient??


 YES!!!!
Active Transport
• Active Transport – moves molecules
against their concentration gradients
• Active transport requires the use of energy

• Cells move substances from a low


concentration to an area of high
concentration

• This means that the cell needs more sugars


or amino acids even if there aren’t many
outside the cell
Active Transport

• Active transport is usually performed by


transport proteins called ‘pumps’

• The energy for active transport most often


comes in the form of ATP

• Sodium-Potassium Pump: transports 3


sodium ions (Na+) out of the cell and 2
potassium ions (K+) in to the cell
Sodium-Potassium
Pump
Review
• So we have now talked about many
different types of transport systems that
the cell uses.

• Diffusion

• Osmosis

• Ion Channels

• Facilitated Diffusion

• Active Transport

• Could there possibly be any more?????


Movement in Vesicles

• YES!! There is one more way!! VESICLES!!

• Many substances such as proteins and


polysaccharides (large sugars) are too
large to be transported by carrier proteins

• These substances move across the cell


membrane by the use of vesicles
Types of Vesicles

• There are two types of vesicles:


• Endocytosis
• Exocytosis

• Endocytosis – the movement of a


substance in to the cell

• Exocytosis – the movement of a substance


out of the cell
Endocytosis
Exocytosis