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2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.

011-1
IP Fundamentals
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Describe the definition of a network.
Describe the common physical components of a network
Describe the Cisco hierarchical network model
Describe the Cisco IP Next-Generation Network model
Describe how to interpret a Cisco network diagram and identifies the
common icons use
Describe the benefits of the network
Identify common user applications in an IP NGN environment
Describe how different application types impact network performance
Describe various characteristics of a network.
Describe the various physical network topologies
Describe the logical network topologies
Describe the bus topology
Describe single-ring and dual-ring topologies
Describe star and extended-star topologies
Describe full-mesh and partial-mesh topologies
Describe the types of physical connections used in networks
2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.011-3
Network
Home Office Mobile User
Branch Office Headquarters
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Router
Switch Switch Access Point
PC Printer Server Desktop IP Phone Laptop
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Core
High-Speed Switching
Policy-Based Connectivity
Local and Remote Workgroup Access
Distribution
Access
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Residential
Mobile Users
Business

Access

Aggregation

IP Edge

Core
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PC
Access
Network
Internet
PC PC
Fa0/5
Fa0/7 Fa0/11
Gi0/1
Gi0/2
.1 .2
Gi0/0
192.168.1.0/24 Gi0/1
S0/0
S0/1
2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.011-8
Data and applications
Resources
Network storage
Backup devices
Printer PC
PC
Switch
Print Server
Router
Switch
Network
Storage
Tape Drive
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Web browser (Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, Opera, etc.
Instant messaging (Skype, AOL, Google Talk, Yahoo)
Video (YouTube, Cisco TelePresence)
Voice (VoIP, Skype)
Databases (file servers)
2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.011-10
Batch applications:
- FTP, TFTP, and inventory updates
- No direct human interaction
- Bandwidth important, but not critical
Interactive applications:
- Inventory inquiries and database
updates
- Human-to-machine interaction
- Because a human is waiting for a
response, response time is
important but not critical, unless the
wait becomes excessive.
Real-time applications:
- VoIP and video
- Human-to-human interaction
- End-to-end latency critical
2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.011-11
The Cisco IP NGN is a next-generation service provider infrastructure
for video, mobile, and cloud or managed services.
The Cisco IP NGN provides all-IP network for services and applications,
regardless of access type.

IP Infrastructure Layer

Services Layer

Application Layer
Video
Services
Cloud
Services
Mobile
Services
Residential
Access
Business
Access
Mobile
Access
Core IP Edge Aggregation Access
2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.011-12
Customer-to-provider connectivity:
IP infrastructure layer of the Cisco IP NGN
Edge devices of the service provider

IP Infrastructure Layer
Residential
Mobile Users
Business

Access

Aggregation

IP Edge

Core
Core IP Edge Aggregation Access
2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.011-13
Topology
Speed
Cost
Security
Availability
Scalability
Reliability
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Physical layout of the devices and cabling
Four primary categories:
- Bus
- Ring
- Star
- Mesh
Bus Topology Ring Topology Star Topology Mesh Topology
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Logical topologies are logical paths that the signals use to
travel from one point on the network to another.
A
Server
Switch Router
Switch
Hub Bridge
B C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
PC A to PC I
logical link
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All devices receive the signal.
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Single-ring topology:
Signals travel around the ring
Single point of failure
Dual-ring topology:
Signals travel in opposite directions
More resilient than the single ring
topology
Two links connected to the
same networking device
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Star topology:
Transmission through a central
point
Single point of failure
Extended-star topology:
More resilient than the star
topology
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Full-mesh topology:
Highly fault-tolerant
Expensive to implement
Partial-mesh topology:
Trade-off between fault
tolerance and cost
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Copper cable (DSL, cable, and serial)
Optical fiber (FTTH)
Wireless (Wi-Fi, mobile data connections, and WiMax)
Internet
Optical Fiber
Copper
Wireless
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A network is a connected collection of devices that can communicate
with each other.
Five major component categories of a network are: endpoints,
interconnections, switches, routers, and wireless devices.
Cisco hierarchical model divides networks into the access, distribution,
and core layers.
The Cisco IP NGN infrastructure layer provides the reliable, high-speed,
and scalable foundation of a network.
The network diagram captures network-related information, such as
network devices and network topology.
The major resources that are shared in a computer network include data
and applications, peripherals, storage devices, and backup devices.
Popular user applications in networks are web browsers, instant
messaging, video and voice, and databases.
Applications can affect network performance and network performance
can affect applications.




2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.011-22
Characteristics of a network are: topology, speed, cost, security,
availability, scalability, and reliability.
A physical topology describes the layout for wiring the physical devices.
A logical topology describes how information flows through a network.
All of the devices on a bus topology are effectively connected by a single
cable.
In a ring topology, all the devices in a network are connected in the form
of a ring or a circle.
The star topology is the most common physical topology in Ethernet
LANs.
The full-mesh topology connects all devices or nodes to one another for
redundancy and fault tolerance.
Three common media to interconnect devices are copper cable, optical
fibre, and wireless.

2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.011-23