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Networking and Health

Information Exchange
ISO Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
This material Comp9_Unit1a was developed by Duke University, funded by the Department of Health and Human Services, Office
of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC000024.

ISO Open System
Interconnection (OSI)
Unit Objectives
2
1. Explain the OSI representation of the various layers
involved in networking, including the general functions of
each layer and their interconnections. (Lecture a)
2. Explain the concept of the Application Layer (Lecture a)
3. Explain the concept of the Presentation Layer (Lecture
a)
4. Explain the concept of the Session Layer (Lecture a)
5. Explain the concept of the Transport Layer (Lecture a)
Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
ISO Open System
Interconnection (OSI)
Unit Objectives
6. Explain the concept of the Network Layer (Lecture b)
7. Explain the concept of the Data Link Layer (Lecture b)
8. Explain the concept of the Physical Layer (Lecture b)
9. Explain connection-oriented versus connectionless
communication (Lecture b)
10.Explain the use of network addressing including security
considerations and vulnerabilities (Lecture b)
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
Terminology
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
A network is two or more devices that
communicate with each other over some
form of transmission media.

Types of networks
Local Area Network (LAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Internet
Intranet
Extranet

Terminology Continued
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
For communication to take place on a
network we need
Source
Receiver
Medium


Image courtesy of
Michele Parrish
Internet
Source
Receiver
Medium Medium
Terminology Continued
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Protocol rules for communication
Examples:
TCP/IP-Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol
HTTP-HyperText Transfer Protocol
NETBEUI-NetBios Extended User Interface
ICMP-Internet Control Message Protocol

Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
TCP/IP Model
Table 1.1 TCP/IP Four-Layer Model for Internet Communications

Source: Parrish, Michele. 2011
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
Application
Transport
Internetwork
Network Access
OSI Model
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
Application
Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
Data Link
Physical
Table 1.2 OSI Seven-Layer Model for Internet Communications

Source: Parrish, Michele. 2011
OSI Model
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
Two Models Compared
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
Image courtesy of
Michele Parrish
Protocol Data Units (PDUs)
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
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Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
Image courtesy of
Michele Parrish
Protocols/Technologies Covered
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
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Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
Image courtesy of
Michele Parrish
Application Layer Protocols
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
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Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is used
by Web browsers and servers to communicate.
Domain Name Service (DNS) is used for
converting host names and domain names into
IP addresses.
Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) is
used for email.
POP3
IMAP4

Application Layer Protocols
Continued
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
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Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP) is used to automatically configure
network hosts with TCP/IP settings.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is used to copy
files from one host to another.
Telnet allows a user to connect to a remote
system and whatever action they perform on
their local host happens on the remote
system.

Presentation Layer Protocols
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
(MIME) specifies how messages must be
formatted so that they can be exchanged
between different email systems.
External Data Representation (XDR) is
a standard for the description and
encoding of data.

Source for MIME: http://www.networkdictionary.com/protocols/mime.php
Source for XDR: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1014

Presentation Layer Protocols
Continued
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its
predecessor, Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
are used to encrypt/decrypt data.
Data Compression/Decompression is
also done at this layer.

Session Layer
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
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Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
Establishes connections
Authentication
Type of communication that will take place
Protocols that will be used by the lower layers
Maintains connections
Synchronizes communications

Session Layer Continued
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
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Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
Control dialogues
Keeps track of which device is making
requests and which device is making
responses
Determines whether acknowledgments are
required
Terminates connections
Transport Layer Protocols
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
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Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
maintains reliable, ordered delivery of
segments.
Connection-oriented
Sequence Numbers
Acknowledgements
Window Sizing

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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
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Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
TCP 3-way Handshake
Image
courtesy of
Michele
Parrish
Source
Receiver
Source
Source
1
2
3
Synchronize (SYN)
Synchronize-
Acknowledgement
(SYN-ACK)
Acknowledgement
(ACK)
Sequence Numbers
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
Image courtesy of
Michele Parrish
Internet
Source
Receiver
1 2 3 4 3 1 4 2
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
Acknowledgements
Image courtesy
of
Michele Parrish
Source
Receiver
Source
Source
1
2
3
Synchronize (SYN)
Synchronize-Acknowledgement
(SYN-ACK)
Acknowledgement (ACK)
SEQ=42
SEQ=78 ACK=43
SEQ=43 ACK=79
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
Window Sizing

Image courtesy of
Michele Parrish
SLOW
Transport Layer Protocols
Continued
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) provides best
effort delivery of datagrams.
Connectionless
Errors may be handled by higher level
protocols.
Minimal Lower Layer Protocol (MLLP) is an
interface between HL7 applications and TCP.

Source: http://www.interfaceware.com/llp.html
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
TCP/UDP Ports
Assigned by the Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority (IANA)
Three different types of port numbers
Well-known ports (0 to 1023)
Registered ports (1024 to 49151)
Dynamic or private ports (49152 to 65535)
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
TCP/UDP Ports
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
Application Protocol Port Number
HTTP TCP 80
HTPS TCP 443
SMTP TCP 25
DHCP UDP 67
FTP TCP 20 (data)
21 (control)
Telnet TCP 23
DNS TCP/UDP 53
Table 1.3 Application, Protocol and Port Numbers

Source: Parrish, Michele. 2011
ISO Open Systems Interconnection
(OSI)
Summary
In this lecture we covered
the TCP/IP model
the OSI model
the Application layer
the Presentation layer
the Session layer and
the Transport layer.
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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a
ISO Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
References Lecture a
References
MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. (n.d.). Retrieved January 6, 2012, from Network Dictionary website:
http://www.networkdictionary.com/protocols/mime.php
Network Working Group. (1987, June). XDR: External Data Representation Standard. Retrieved from Sun
Microsystems website: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1014
LLP - Lower Layer Protocol. (n.d.). Retrieved January 6, 2012, from iNTERFACEWARE Inc. website:
http://www.interfaceware.com/llp.html

Charts, Tables, Figures
1.1 Table: Parrish, Michele. 2011.
1.2 Table: Parrish, Michele. 2011.
1.3 Table: Parrish, Michele. 2011.

Images
Slide 5: Source, Medium and Receiver. Courtesy Michele Parrish. Used with permission.
Slide 9: OSI Model showing layers and their functions. Courtesy Michele Parrish. Used with permission.
Slide 10: Model Comparison. Courtesy Michele Parrish. Used with permission.
Slide 11: PDU. Courtesy Michele Parrish. Used with permission.
Slide 12: Protocols. Courtesy Michele Parrish. Used with permission.
Slide 20: Handshake. Courtesy Michele Parrish. Used with permission.
Slide 21: Sequence. Courtesy Michele Parrish. Used with permission.
Slide 22: Acknowledgements. Courtesy Michele Parrish. Used with permission.
Slide 23: Window Sizing. Courtesy Michele Parrish. Used with permission.

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Health IT Workforce Curriculum
Version 3.0/Spring 2012
Networking and Health information Exchange ISO Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Lecture a