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Production Enhancement

Sandstone Acidizing
Sandstone 2000 Acid System


Sand formations damaged by mud invasion or mud filter
cakes
Sand formations containing clay-type debris or silt
Formations with low natural permeability
Formations requiring clean up prior to sand control
treatments or testing
Sand formations damaged by fines migration due to
injection or production
Gas, water injection and disposal wells with permeability
problems
Formations with plugged screens, liners or perforations
Gravel packed wells requiring clean out
Potassium feldspar
Sodium feldspar
Illite clay
Zeolites
Carbonates
Bentonite, Kaolinite and other clays
Sandstone Acidizing
Whats the Damage Mechanism?

What are the Well Parameters?

How Should We Treat the Well?

How Did the Treatment Work?
Well Parameters
FORMATION MINERALOGY

BHST

Permeability

Formation Fluids - oil, brine
Treatment Design
Is HF the Fluid of Choice?

HF Fluid Design - Sandstone 2000 Acidizing Systems
Preflush Considerations - Sandstone 2000 Formation
Conditioning Systems
Overflush Considerations
Diversion
Coiled Tubing
Treatment Analysis
MATRIX Program

Production Results

Returns Analysis

Apply Experience to Future Wells
Core Analysis
Mineralogy determination
X-ray Diffraction (XRD)
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
Thin Section Petrographic Analysis
Core Flow Testing
Permeability Profiles
Effluent Analysis
Modeling
Compatibility Testing
Oil-Acid-Brine Compatibility
Emulsion Testing
Sludging/Precipitation

Acid-Rock Compatibility

Drilling Mud, Completion Fluids, . . .`
27 October 2014
CHEMISTRY OF HF ACIDIZING
Understanding of HF Reactions
Primary Reaction
6HF + SiO
2
--------- H
2
SiF
6
+ 2H
2
2HF + CaCO
3
------ CaF
2
!

+ 2H
2
O + CO
2

36HF + Al
2
Si
4
O
10
(OH)
2
--------------
4H
2
SiF
6
+ 2H
3
AlF
6
+ 12H
2
O
HF + Al-Si ----------- AlF
x
(3-x)
( x: 1-6 ) +
H
2
SiF
6
Primary Reaction ( continued )
HF Reacts to Spent HF
HF Dissolving Power
Mostly Silicon Fluorides in Solution
Only a Little HCl Consumed
Secondary Reaction
H
2
SiF
6
+ 3Al
2
Si
4
O
10
(OH)
2
+ 12HCl + 4H
2
O --
------
6AlF
+2
+ 12Cl
-
+ 12H
2
SiO
3
+ Si(OH)
4
!

H
2
SiF
6
+ (Na,K) --------- Na,K
2
SiF
6
! + 2H
+
Secondary Reaction ( continued )
Silicon Fluorides React
Secondary Silica Precipitation
Fluosilicate Precipitation
Only Aluminum Fluorides Remaining
Lots of HCl consumed
The Secondary Reaction
-90 -80 -70 -60 -50
m
i
n
u
t
e
s
7
13
19
30
50
d
Tertiary Reaction
y AlF
x
(3-x)
+ Al-Si + HCl-----------
x AlF
y
(3-y)
( y < x ) + Si ( OH)
4
!
Evidence of Reaction: Low F/Al Ratio
( method: NMR Spectroscopy )
Prone to alumino-silicate scaling
The Tertiary Reaction
-90 -80 -70 -60 -50
d
m
i
n
u
t
e
s
97
162
257
384
1296
Sandstone Completion Acid

Fines Control Acid

K-Spar Acid

Volcanic Acid

Silica Scale Acid
Sandstone 2000 Acid System
FORMATION CONDITIONING SYSTEMS

Mud-Flush, N-Ver-Sperse, solvents, HCl

Gidleys CO2 Conditioner

CLAYFIX 5 Conditioner

CLAY-SAFE 5 Conditioner

CLAY-SAFE H Conditioner

Sandstone 2000 Acid System
HF Incompatible with Na-Spar
0 20 40 60 80 100
% Secondary Reaction
0
1
2
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
M
)
12% HCl - 3% HF
200 F
Na - Released
Na - Tolerance
HF Compatible with Na-Spar
0 20 40 60 80 100
% Secondary Reaction
0
1
2
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
M
)
13.5% HCl - 1.5% HF
200 F
Na - Released
Na - Tolerance
HF Incompatible with K-Spar
0 20 40 60 80 100
% Secondary Reaction
0
1
2
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
M
)
13.5% HCl - 1.5% HF
200 F
K - Tolerance
K - Released
HF Compatible with K-Spar
0 20 40 60 80 100
% Secondary Reaction
0
1
2
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
M
)
9% HCl - 1% HF
200 F
K - Tolerance
K - Released
Application to Na-Spar
Te mp F HF Ble nd
T > 175 13.5% HCl - 1.5% HF
T < 175 9% HCl - 1% HF
Application to K-Spar
Te mp F HF Ble nd
T > 250 13. 5% HCl - 1. 5% HF
250 > T > 200 9% HCl - 1% HF
200 > T > 175 7% HCl - 0. 75% HF
175 > T > 125 6% HCl - 0. 5% HF
125 > T > 100 6% HCl - 0. 4% HF
Role of Carbonate
Preflush Volumes
Returns Analyses
Lowers HCl:HF ratio
Aluminum Precipitation Within the Matrix
HCl (15%) Volume for Removing Carbonates
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
R (ft)
0
100
200
300
V
o
l
u
m
e


(
g
a
l
/
f
t
)
1%
2%
3%
5%
10%
Penetration of Spent HF
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
R (ft)
0
100
200
300
V
o
l
u
m
e


(
g
a
l
/
f
t
)
10%
20%
30%
Mineral CEC Rating
feldspars, kaolinite 0
illite, chlorite 20
mixed layer clays 20 - 80
smectite, mica 80 - 100
zeolites 100 - 250
Ion Exchanging Minerals
Cation Exchange on Clays
Substitution of Cations
Sodium - Na
+

Potassium - K
+

Ammonium - NH
4
+

Proton - H
+

Important for Deep Invasion
Experimentally Determined
Injection of 6% KNO3
0 250 500 750
Volume (ml)
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
0.5 ft
1.0 ft
1.5 ft
2.0 ft
2.5 ft
3.0 ft
P
e
r
m
e
a
b
i
l
i
t
y


R
a
t
i
o

Injection of 5% NH4Cl
0 250 500 750
Volume (ml)
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.0 ft
1.5 ft
2.0 ft
2.5 ft
3.0 ft
P
e
r
m
e
a
b
i
l
i
t
y


R
a
t
i
o

Avoiding Problems
Brine Compatibility
Before Ion Exchange
After Ion Exchange
Useful Brines
5% NH
4
Cl
7% KCl
6% NaCl
Acid Sensitive Clays
Clays Destroyed by HCl
Chlorite
Zeolites
Stability in Organic Acid
Acetic Acid
Formic Acid
Clay Instability Ratings (CIR)
50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature F
0
25
50
75
100
C
I
R
K
a
o
l
i
n
i
t
e
Feldspar
I
l
l
i
t
e
A
n
a
l
c
i
m
e
C
h
l
o
r
i
t
e
S
m
e
c
t
i
t
e
Acetic Acid in Sandstones
Does NOT Ion Exchange
Does NOT Prevent Swelling
Does NOT Dissolve Iron Scales
Slow to Dissolve Carbonates
Easily Inhibited
Avoiding Problems
Use 5% NH
4
Cl Preflushes
Use 5% NH
4
Cl in Acetic Acid
Small HCl pickling Stage
SS-Mineralogical Analysis Program
Tertiary reaction on clay and feldspar
Clays stability rating
Carbonate removal
Fluid invasion
Ion exchange