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ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
EET 102
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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COURSE OUTLINE
INTRODUCTION OF TRANSFORMER
MUTUAL INDUCTANCE
ENERGY IN A COUPLED CIRCUIT
LINEAR TRANSFORMERS
IDEAL TRANSFORMERS
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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INTRODUCTION OF TRANSFORMER
An electrical device designed on the basis of the
concept of magnetic coupling.
Transfer energy from one circuit to another
circuit using magnetically coupled coils.
Known as key circuit elements in power systems
for stepping up or stepping down AC voltages or
current; in electronic circuits as impedance
matching , and isolating one part of the circuit
from another.
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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MUTUAL INDUCTANCE
Ability of one inductor to induce a voltage across
another inductor when two inductors are in close to
each other.
The magnetic flux caused by current in one coil links
with the other coil.
Faraday’s law – the voltage v induced in the coil is
proportional to the number of turns N and the time
rate of change of the magnetic flux 
d
v
N
dt
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Flux  is produce by current i; changes in 
is caused by a change in i.
d di
v  N
di dt
di
d
v  L
L
N
dt
di
Know as self inductance because relates the
voltage induced in a coil by a time-varying
current in the same coil.
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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The open circuit mutual
voltage across coil 2.
Magnetic flux  1 emanating
from coil 1 has two
components:
    
1
11
12
Entire flux  1 links coil 1, the
voltage induced in coil 1 is:
d di
di
v
N
1
1
 L
1
1
1
1
di dt
dt
1
d
Self inductance of coil 1
v
N
1
1
1
dt
d
di
di
12
1
1
v
N
 M
Only  12 links coil 2, so the
voltage induced in coil 2 is:
2
2
21
di dt
dt
1
Mutual inductance of coil 2 with respect to coil 1
d
v
 N
12
2
2
di
dt
1
v
M
2
21
dt
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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The open circuit mutual
voltage across coil 1.
Magnetic flux  2 emanating
from coil 1 has two
components:
    
2
2 1
2 2
Entire flux  2 links coil 1, the
voltage induced in coil 1 is:
d di
di
v
 N
2
2
 L
2
2
2
2
di dt
dt
2
d
Self inductance of coil 2
v
N
2
2
2
dt
d
di
di
v
N
2
1
2
 M
2
Only  21 links coil 2, so the
voltage induced in coil 2 is:
1
1
1 2
di dt
dt
2
Mutual inductance of coil 1 with respect to coil 2
d
v  N
21
1
1
dt
di
2
v
M
1
12
dt
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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# measured in henrys (H).

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### EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II

Dot convention
Mutual inductance M is always positive quantity
but mutual voltage M di/dt may be negative or
positive.
A dot is placed in the circuit at one end of each
of the two magnetically coupled coils to indicate
the direction of magnetic flux if current enters
that dotted terminal of the coil.
The dots are used along with the dot convention
to determine the polarity of the mutual voltage.
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Dot convention state as:
If a current enters the dotted terminal of one coil,
the reference polarity of mutual voltage in second
coil is positive at dotted terminal of second coil.
If a current leaves the dotter terminal of one coil,
the reference polarity of mutual voltage in second
coil is negative at dotted terminal of second coil.
Illustration of the dot convention
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Examples of illustrating applying dot convention
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Dot convention for coils in series; the sign
indicates the polarity of the mutual voltage;
(a) series-aiding connection,
(b) series-opposing connection.
L  L  L  M
2
L  L  L  M
2
1
2
1
2
(series - aiding connection )
(series - opposing connection )
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Example 1
Time-domain analysis of a circuit containing coupled coils
Applying KVL
Coil 1
di
di
1
2
v
i R
L
 M
1
1
1
1
dt
dt
In frequency domain :
V
(
R
j L I
)
j MI
Coil 2
1
1
1
1
2
V
j MI
(
R
j L
)
I
di
di
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
v
i R
L
 M
2
2
2
2
dt
dt
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Example 2
Frequency-domain analysis of a circuit containing coupled coils
Applying KVL
Coil 1
V  (Z
 jL )I
 jMI
1
1
1
2
Coil 2
0
  
j MI
(Z
 
j
L )I
1
L
2
2
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Example 3
Applying KVL for coil 1:
1 2
  j  j I  j I 
(
4
5 )
3
0
1
2
jI  j I 
3
12
1
2
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Applying KVL for coil 2:
 j I 
3
(12
 j
6 )
I 
0
1
2
(12
 j
6 )
I
2
I
1
j 3
( 2
 j
4 )
I
2
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Substituting I 2 in equation coil 1
(
j
2
4 )
I
j
3
I
12
2
2
(
j
2
4
j
3 )
I
12
2
12
I
2
4 
j
2 . 91
14 . 04
 A
I
( 2
j
4 )
I
1
2
o
o
( 4 .372
 
63 .43 ) (2 .91
14 .04 )
o
13 .01
 
49 .39
A
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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ENERGY IN A COUPLED CIRCUIT
Energy stored in inductor is:
1
2
w 
Li
2
Power in coil 1:
di
1
p t
( ) 
v i
i L
1
1 1
1
1
dt
Energy stored in coil 1:
w
p dt
1
1
I
1
 L
i di
1
0
1
1
1
2
L I
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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1
18
2
Maintain i 1 =I 1 ; increase i 2 from zero to I 2 .
Power in coil 2:
Energy stored in coil 2:
p
2 ( ) 
t
i v
i v
1
1
2
2
w
p dt
2
2
di
2
2
2
i M
 i v
1
12
2
2
M
I
di
L
i di
12
1
 I
2
2
 I
2
2
dt
0
0
di
di
1
2
2
2
I M
 i L
M
I I
L I
1
12
2
2
12
1
2
2
2
dt
dt
2
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Total energy stored in the coil when i 1 & i 2 reached
constant value:
w
w
w
1
2
1
1
2
2
L I
L I
M
I I
1
1
2
2
12
1
2
2
2
Since M 12 = M 21 = M
1
1
2
2
w 
L I 
L I  M I I
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
Coil current both entered the dotted terminals.
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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If one current enters one dotted terminal while the
other current leaves the other dotted terminal, the
mutual voltage is negative.
1
1
2
2
w 
L I 
L I  M I I
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
Generally, energy stored in magnetically coupled circuit
is:
1
1
2
2
w 
L I
L I
 M I I
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Energy stored in the circuit cannot be negative
because the circuit is passive.
1
1
2
2
L i 
L i  Mi i  0
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
Coupling coefficient k is a measure of the magnetic
coupling between two coils; 0  k  1
M
k 
L L
1
2
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Example 4
Consider the circuit below. Determine the
coupling coefficient. Calculate the energy
stored in the coupled inductors at time t = 1s if
v=60cos(4t +30°) V.
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Coupling coefficient
M
2
. 5
k 
 0 . 56
L L
20
1
2
Indicate that the inductors are tightly coupled.
Obtain the frequency-domain equivalent
6 0 cos( 4
t
3 0
 
)
6 0
3 0
,
4
/
s
5
H
j
L
j
2 0
1
2 .5
H
j
M
j
1 0
4
H
j
L
j
1 6
2
1
1
F
 
j 4
1 6
j
C
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Mesh 1:
(1 0 
j
2 0 )
I
j
1 0
I
 6 0  3 0 
1
2
Mesh 2:
j
10
I
(
j
16
j
4 )
I
0
1
2
I
  1 .2
I
1
2
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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2

2

1

2

# In time-domain:

 i  3.905 cos( 4 t   19.4 ); i 2  3.254 cos( 4 t   160.6 ) 1 t  1; 4 t  4 rad  229.2  i 1  3.905 cos( 229.2   19.4 )    3.389 A i 2  3.254 cos( 229.2   160.6 )   2.824 A
26

### EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II

Total energy stored:
1
1
2
2
w
L i
L i
Mi i
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
(5)( 3.389)
(4)(2.824)
2.5( 3.389)(2.824)
2
2
 20.73 J
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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LINEAR TRANSFORMER
It is generally a four-terminal device comprising
two or more magnetically coupled coils.
Primary coil is connected to voltage source.
Secondary coils is connected to the load.
R 1 and R 2 are included to calculate losses in coil.
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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To obtain input impedance, Z in ; KVL is applying in
the two loop as below:
V
(
R
j L I
)
j MI
1
1
1
2
0
 
j MI
(
R
j L
Z I
)
1
2
2
L
2
Substituting I 2 in I 1 ; the input impedance is:
V
Z
in
I
1
R
j
L
Z
1
1
R
where,
2
2
M
Z 
R
R
j L
Z
2
2
L
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Equivalent circuit of Linear
Transformer
 Can divide into 2 equivalent; T circuit and  circuit.
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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 Voltage-current relationship for primary and secondary coils
Matrix equation:
 V 
 j L
j M   I 
1
1
1
V
j M
j L
I
 
2
2
2
Matrix inversion:
L
 M
2
2
2
I
V
j
(
L L
M
)
j
(
L L
M
)
1
1
1
2
1
2
 
 M
L
I
V
1
2
2
2
2
j
(
L L
M
)
j
(
L L
M
)
1
2
1
2
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Equivalent T circuit
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Mesh analysis is apply in T (or Y) network.
V
j
(
L
L
j L
  
I
1
a
c
c
1
 
V
j L
j
(
L
L
)
I
  
2
c
b
c
2
If T circuit and linear circuit are equivalent, then:
L
L M
L
L M
b 
a
1
2
L M
c
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Equivalent  circuit
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Nodal analysis is apply in  (or ) network.
1
1
1
I
V
j
L
j
L
j
L
1
1
A
C
C
 
1
1
1
I
V
2
2
j
L
j
L
j
L
C
B
C
Equating terms in admittance matrices of above;
obtain:
2
2
L L
M
L L
M
1
2
1
2
L
L
A
B
L
M
L M
2
1
2
L L
M
1
2
L
C
M
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Example 5
In
the
circuit
above,
calculate
the
input
impedance and current I 1 . Take Z 1 =60-j100Ω,
Z 2 =30+j40Ω, and Z L =80+j60Ω.
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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2
(5)
Z
Z
j 20
in
1
j
40 
Z
Z
2
L
25
(60
j
100 )
j
20
j
40
(30
j
40 )
(80
j
60 )
25
60
j
80
110
j
140
60
j
80
0.087
j
0.11
100 .14
 
53 .12

V
50
60
I
1
Z
100 .14
 
53 .12
in
0.5
113 .3
 A
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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IDEAL TRANSFORMER
Is a unity-coupled, lossless transformer in which
the primary and secondary coils have infinite
self-inductances.
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Voltage across primary winding is
d
v
N
1
1
dt
Voltage across secondary winding is
d
v
N
2
2
dt
Transformer ratio
v
N
2
2
 n
v
N
1
1
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
39
Energy supplied to the primary must equal to energy
absorbed by secondary since no losses in ideal
transformer.
v i  v i
1 1
2
2
Primary and secondary currents are related to the
turns ratio. Thus,
I
N
1
2
1
I
N
n
1
2
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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# If n  1, the voltage decreased from primary to secondary (V 2 V 1).

41

### EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II

Typical circuits in ideal
transformer
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
42
From the transformer turn ratio, the V 1 , V 2 , I 1 or I 2
can express as:
V
2
V 
or
V
n V
1
2
1
n
I
1
I
n I
or
I
1
2
2
n
The complex power in primary winding for ideal is:
V
*
*
2
*
S  V I 
(nI
)
V I
S
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
n
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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Know that:
V
1
V
1
2
Z in
2
I
n I
1
2
Since V 2 /I 2 = Z L , thus:
Z
L
Z
in
2
n
Also known as reflected impedance
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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# secondary windings.

45

### EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II

a) This is a step - down trans former, since
V
2400
V
V
120
V
1
2
V
120
2
n 
 0.05
V
2400
1
N
50
2
b)
n 
0 . 05
N
 1000
N
1
1
N
turns
1
c)
S
V I
V
I
9 .6
kVA
. Hence,
1
1
2
2
S
9600
I
 4 A
1
V
2400
1
S
9600
I
 80 A
2
V
120
2
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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THE END
EET 102 ELECTRIC CIRCUIT II
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