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DESIGN OF

DISTILLATIO
N COLUMN
Separation of BIO DIESEL
from METHANOL
DESIGN STEPS OF DISTILLATION
COLUMN
Calculation of minimum reflux ratio r
m

Calculation of actual reflux ratio
Calculation of theoretical number of stages
Calculation of actual number of stages
Calculation of diameter of the column
Calculation of flooding point
Calculation of entrainment
Calculation of pressure drop
Calculation of the height of the column
X
f
=0.2848

X
d =
0.99

X
w
= 0.01
Now consider binary mixture of
methanol and biodiesel.
Total pressure of system =10 mmhg
Relative volatility of mixture = 8
Calculation of minimum reflux ratio:

From Coulson vol # 02 equation 11.15

ya=

1: ;1

Solving for Yf:
Xf=0.2848

ya=
8 x 0.591
1: 8;1 0.591


Yf =0.76
Know for minimum reflux ratio:

Rm=
(Xd;Yf)
(Yf;Xf)

Rm = x
d
- y
f
y
f
x
f


Rm= 0.99-0.76
0.76-.2848

Rm=0.503
Since,
R= 1.3Rm
R= 1.3(0.503)
R=0.6
According to mass balance
F=2129.649 kg/hr
D=606.524 kg/hr
W= 606.524kg/hr
since,
R=L
n
/D
L
n
= 394.2

SO,


AND WE KNOW THAT
VN = LN + D

VN = 1000 KG/HR

SIMILARLY FOR STRIPPING SECTION AS WE ENTER THE FEED AT ITS BOILING
POINT SO,

LM = LN + F

LM = 394.2+ 2129
LM = 2523.2 KG/HR
FROM PLATE BALANCE WE KNOW

LM = VM + W

VM = 1916KG/HR


Theoratical Number Of Stages:

from equation 11.58 (page 524) Coulson vol#06

Nm =
ln(x
A

/
x
B
)
d

(x
B

/
x
A
)
B
l(
)avg


So,

Nm =ln(0.99/0.01)
d
(0.01/0.99)
b

we get, ln 75


Minimum no plates = Nm =2




Theoretical number of plates:



N N
min

:1
= 0.75 [ 1 ( R -
R
min

:1
]
0.566
]

By putting values


N 2
:1
= 0.75 [ 1 (
0.60.503
1.6
]
0.566
]

N = 7 PLATES





Location of feed plates
We use Kirkbrides method for finding feed point location.
(Eq 11.62 Coulson vol#06)
log[
N
D

N
B

] = 0.206 log[(

)(
x
Lk
x
Hk
)
F
{

D B

}
2
]

B and D are bottom and distillate respectively

log[
N
D

N
B

] = 0.206log[(
606.524
606.524
)(
0.66
0.2848
) {
0.98
0.002
}
2
]

log[
N
D

N
B

] = 0.6895
So

N
D
= 0.6895 N
B

And we know that

N
D
+ N
B
= 7
So ,
N
D
= 3.8 & N
B
= 3.2

So feed will b at 3
rd
plate from the bottom

Calculation of actual number of stages :

For finding Column efficiency() we need viscosity so for finding
viscosity.

Avg. temp. off column =
temp:
2


=
105:55
2


= 80
Feed viscosity at average column temperature =
ave
= 0.033 Ns/m






Relative volatility =
avg
= 28

So efficiency is calculated by O'Connell's correlation formula
(eq 11.67 Coulson vol # 06)

Efficency = = 5132.5[log (
avg

avg
)]

= 51 32.5 [log(0.033)(28)]

= 82%
Number of actual tray =
7
0.82


= 9 PLATES
Calculation of column dia:

Vapor load at bottom= Q
v
=
V
m

v

(average molecular weight of
vapour)

V
m
= maximum flow rate in stripping section = 1916Kg/hr

v
= density of vapour = 850 Kg/m

Avg molecular weight of vapour = 60 kg/kmol

So,

Q
v
=
1916 x 60
850 x 3600


and

Q
v
= 0.037
3
/s







Liquid load at bottom = Q
v
=
V
m

v
(average molecular weight of
vapour)

= 2523 kg/hr

v = density of vapour = 850 Kg/m

Avg molecular weight of vapour = 60 kg/kmol

So,

Q
L
=
2523x 60
850 x 3600


and

Q
L
= 0.042
3
/s





Tray Dynamics:

F
Lv
= liquid vapors factor


Lv
= (

m

)(

L

)
0.5


= (
2523
1916
)(
0.196
0.196
)
0.5


= 0.0184
Capacity Parameter

Assumed tray spacing = 700mm
Surface tension of system = = 50 dynes/cm

C
sb = 0.1048





Net Vapor Velocity At Flooding:

V
nf
= C
sb
(

)
0.2
[ (

l


v

v
)
0.5


V
nf
= 5.87 m/s

Actual Vapor Velocity:

V
A
= 0.80 Vn
f
= 0.80 * 2.3865

V
A
= 4.7 m/s
Volumetric flow rate of vapours= 2.12 m
3
/sec
Net-Area:

A
n
= Volumetric flow rate of vapor
Actual vapor velocity

= 10/4.7

A
n
= 2.12 m
2
Assume that down comer occupies 15% of Cross-sectional Area; then
Cross-Sectional Area:

A
C
= 2.12/0.85

A
c
= 2.49m
2


Diameter of Column
Since we have
A
c
=

D
2

D =



D =
4 2.49
3.14


D = 1.8m

Calculation Of Flooding Point

V
n
=
Q
v


A
n
=
0.037
2.12


= 0.0174 m/s


Net Area:

Net area = A
n
= 1.687 m
2


Active area = A
a
= A
c
- 2A
d


Down comer area = A
d
= 0.15 A
c


A
d
= 0.15 * 2.49

= 0.3735 m
2

now,
A
a
= A
c
- 2A
d


= 2.49 2(0.3735)

= 1.74 m
2




Pressure Drop Over The Entire Column:
Pressure drop per tray= o.5 kpa
P
T
= 0.64 * 7

P
T
= 4.48 Kpa

Height of Distillation Column

Height of column= (N
T
-1)x tray spacing + bottom space + t op space
=(6 x 0.7) +0.7+0.7
= 5.6 m= 6 m
THANKS...