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drt 6903 droit du commerce

lectronique
econtrat
Professeur titulaire
Directeur du CRDP
Facult de droit
universit de montral
chaire udm
en droit de la scurit et des affaires
lectroniques
www.gautrais.com
5
A B
Normalement


1386 CCQ. L'change de consentement
se ralise par la manifestation, expresse
ou tacite, de la volont d'une personne
d'accepter l'offre de contracter que lui
fait une autre personne.

Cest aussi...


information + sanction
ou
communication + scurit

Exemples

ORAL

PAPIER

ELECTRONQUE

BAS
tlphone nappe
fax
courriel

MEDIUM
vente entre 2
professionnels
Contrat sign courriel avec
accus de
rception


HAUT
Code Hammurabi
Contrat de
mariage
vente immobilire
Saxon ( 100 A J.C.)
contrat notarial contrat avec
PKI
contrat avec
une tierce partie
communication
s
e
c
u
r
i
t


simple moins que

1385 CCQ. Le contrat se forme par le seul
change de consentement entre des
personnes capables de contracter, moins
que la loi n'exige, en outre, le respect d'une
forme particulire comme condition
ncessaire sa formation, ou que les
parties n'assujettissent la formation du
contrat une forme solennelle.
moins que


crit

Signature

Original

EX:
connaissement,
preuve, etc.
EX: Licence,
Clause arbitrale,
contrat de
consommation,
etc
EX: Certains
Contrats, preuve,
etc.
Comme vu dans 1385 CCQ,
2 principales questions


1 Formalisme


2 eConsentement
1



Formalisme et eContrat



United Nations Convention on the Use of
Electronic Communications in International
Contracts (2005) (CUECIC)
Pourquoi une telle convention?

1) Enlever les obstacles lgaux au
eCommerce

2) Enlever incertitude

3) Fournir des solutions uniformes
Contenu de la convention?
1) Generalits
Dfinitions (art. 4)
Exclusions (art. 2)
Autonomie des parties (art. 3)
Interprtation (art. 5)
2) xigences Formelles
crit
Signature
Original
3) Formation du eContract

1.
2.
xigences Formelles


crit

Signature

Original
1.
Formation du eContrat


Approche minimaliste

Pas de remise en cause des aspects
contractuels

Autonomie des parties
2.
Formation du eContrat


Temps et place de lmission et la
rception des communications
electroniques

Usage des messages automatiss pour
la formation des contrats
2.
Temps et lieu de lmission et de la
rception est different du
temps et place de conclusion !


1387 CCQ. Le contrat est form au
moment o l'offrant reoit l'acceptation et
au lieu o cette acceptation est reue,
quel qu'ait t le moyen utilis pour la
communiquer et lors mme que les parties
ont convenu de rserver leur accord sur
certains lments secondaires.

2.A
I
N
F
O
R
M
A
T
I
O
N

R
E
C
E
P
T
I
O
N

E
M
I
S
S
I
O
N

D
E
C
L
A
R
A
T
I
O
N

A B


Offre


Acceptation
2.A
Temps et lieu de lexpdition et de
la rception des communications
lectroniques

10 (1). Le moment de lexpdition dune
communication lectronique est le moment o
cette communication quitte un systme
dinformation dpendant de lexpditeur

10 (2). Le moment de la rception dune
communication lectronique est le moment o
cette communication peut tre releve par le
destinataire une adresse lectronique que
celui-ci a dsigne .


2.A
Temps et place de lmission et
rception des communications
lectroniques


Prsomption que le document est
mis => place daffaires

Prsomption que le document est
reu => place daffaires


2.A
Contrat automatis
Cest lgal!

12. La validit ou la force excutoire dun contrat
form par linteraction dun systme de messagerie
automatis et dune personne physique, ou bien par
linteraction de systmes de messagerie automatiss
ne peuvent tre contestes au seul motif quune
personne physique nest pas intervenue ou na
pas contrl chacune des oprations excutes par
les systmes ni le contrat qui en rsulte.
La capacit est rgle

Mais
2.B
Quest-ce quun contrat
automatis?

Ce peut tre des technologies complexes
telles que :
EDI
Logiciel
Ce peut tre des technologies simples
telles que :
Un formulaire commercial

2.B
Contrat complexe automatis

Contrat de communication pralable au
contrat automatis
Exemple
Contrat Communication EDI
Dure
Rgir le contrat
Convention sur la preuve
Vie prive
Etc.

2.B
Contrat Automatis simple
2.B
Contrat
entre
Amazon
(vendeur
+
Automate)
et
moi
(acheteur
+
Vraie
personne)
Contrat automatis simple


2.B
Amazon Moi
Contrat automatis simple
(UN Convention art. 14)

Where a natural person makes an input error in an
electronic communication exchanged with the automated
message system of another party and the automated
message system does not provide the person with an
opportunity to correct the error, that person, or the party
on whose behalf that person was acting, has the right
to withdraw the portion of the electronic
communication in which the input error was made

+ 2 conditions
- diligence de lusager
- Pas davantages de lusager
2.B
Conclusions


La Convention met en place une base
minimale

Important de dvelopper ce plus petit
dnominateur commun
2.B
Consentement =


1) communication


2) acceptation

1
2
1399 CCQ


Le consentement doit tre libre et
clair.

1
Lisibilit



Contrat = Information
1
Mais..



Pour le moins 10 pratiques
contractuelles pathologiques
1
1 - Lisibilit







1
2 - Dynamique
7. Privacy; Monitoring the Services
We are under no obligation to monitor the
services, but we may do so from time to
time and we may disclose information
regarding Users use of the Services for
any reason and at our sole discretion in
order to satisfy applicable laws,
regulations, governmental requests, or in
order to operate and deliver the Services
in an effective manner, or to otherwise
protect us and our Users. We agree to
comply with the terms of our Privacy
Policy as set forth on our FAQ website, as
it may be amended from time to time.
1
3 - Longueur
1



Information = oxygne
1
Feldman v. Google (April 2007)
AdWords Agreement gave reasonable notice of its terms. In order to
activate an AdWords account, the user had to visit a webpage which
displayed the Agreement in a scrollable text box. () the text of the
AdWords Agreement was immediately visible to the user, as was a
prominent admonition in boldface to read the terms and conditions
carefully, and with instruction to indicate assent if the user agreed to the
terms. That the user would have to scroll through the text box of the
Agreement to read it in its 14 entirety does not defeat notice because there
was sufficient notice of the Agreement itself and clicking Yes constituted
assent to all of the terms. The preamble, which was immediately visible,
also made clear that assent to the terms was binding. The Agreement was
presented in readable 12-point font. It was only seven paragraphs long
not so long so as to render scrolling down to view all of the terms
inconvenient or impossible. A printer-friendly, full-screen version was
made readily available. The user had ample time to review the
document.
4 - Hyperliens

Linarit versus hypertextualit
1
5 O est le e-contract ?
1
6 Documents lgaux multiples
Copyright
Privacy
Cookies
Terms and Conditions of Sale
Terms of Use
Limited Warranty
Service Contracts
Hardware Technical Support
Policy
Etc.
1
7 - Terminologies juridiques
THE SERVICES PROVIDED BY US ARE PROVIDED "AS IS." WE MAKE NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING,
BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR NON-INFRINGEMENT, OR ANY
WARRANTY REGARDING THE RELIABILITY OR SUITABILITY FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OF ITS SERVICES. USER UNDERSTANDS AND
ACKNOWLEDGES THAT WE EXERCISE NO CONTROL OVER THE NATURE, CONTENT OR RELIABILITY OF THE INFORMATION AND/OR
DATA PASSING THROUGH OUR NETWORK. NO ORAL OR WRITTEN INFORMATION OR ADVICE GIVEN BY US, ITS DEALERS, AGENTS OR
EMPLOYEES SHALL CREATE A WARRANTY AND USER MAY NOT RELY ON ANY SUCH INFORMATION OR ADVICE. WE MAKES NO
WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, REGARDING THE QUALITY, ACCURACY OR VALIDITY OF THE INFORMATION
AND/OR DATA RESIDING ON OR PASSING THROUGH ANY NETWORK. USE OF ANY INFORMATION AND/OR DATA OBTAINED FROM OR
THROUGH SERVICES PROVIDED BY US WILL BE AT USERS OWN RISK. USER ACKNOWLEDGES THAT WE ARE NOT LIABLE FOR ANY
ERRORS OR INTERRUPTION IN THE INSTALLATION PROCESS OR IN PROVIDING THE SERVICES, WHETHER WITHIN OR OUTSIDE THE
CONTROL OF US. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHALL THE USER HOLD US OR ANY OF OUR AGENTS, CONTRACTORS OR
REPRESENTATIVES RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY FORM OF DAMAGES OR LOSSES (INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
CONSEQUENTIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES OR LOSSES) SUFFERED FROM, BUT NOT LIMITED TO ERRORS, DELAYS, LOSS OF
INFORMATION, DELAYS IN THE INSTALLATION OR PROVISIONING PROCESS, OR INTERRUPTIONS IN THE SERVICES CAUSED BY THE
USER, US OR A THIRD PARTYS NEGLIGENCE, FAULT, MISCONDUCT OR FAILURE TO PERFORM. USER UNDERSTANDS THAT
TELECOMMUNICATION AND/OR NETWORK ACCESS SERVICES MAY BE TEMPORARILY UNAVAILABLE FOR SCHEDULED OR
UNSCHEDULED MAINTENANCE AND FOR OTHER REASONS WITHIN AND OUTSIDE OF THE DIRECT CONTROL OF US. UNDER NO
CIRCUMSTANCES DO ANY SUCH ERRORS, DELAYS, INTERRUPTIONS IN SERVICES OR LOSS OF INFORMATION NULLIFY OR MODIFY
THESE TERMS AND CONDITIONS. WE RESERVE THE RIGHT TO REFUSE OR TERMINATE SERVICES TO A USER AT ANY TIME WITHOUT
CAUSE. THE INTERNET CONTAINS UNEDITED MATERIALS, WHICH MAY BE SEXUALLY EXPLICIT, OR MAY BE OFFENSIVE TO YOU OR
OTHERS ACCESSING THE SERVICES. WE HAVE NO CONTROL OVER SUCH MATERIALS AND ACCEPT NO RESPONSIBILITY FOR SUCH
MATERIALS.
1
7 Terminologies 1
8 Titres non juridiques
consumer contract
terms of Services
conditions of Use
conditions of Sale
notice
legal
waiver
licence
etc.
Privacy contract
privacy
confidentiality
FAQ
security
legal
waiver
licence
notice
etc.
1
9 Clauses abusives
1
10 Clauses stupides

DELL (INCLUDING DELLS PARENTS, AFFILIATES, OFFICERS,
DIRECTORS, EMPLOYEES OR AGENTS) DOES NOT ACCEPT
LIABILITY BEYOND THE REMEDIES SET FORTH HEREIN,
INCLUDING ANY LIABILITY FOR PRODUCTS NOT BEING
AVAILABLE FOR USE, LOST OR CORRUPTED DATA OR
SOFTWARE, PRODUCTS SOLD THROUGH DELLS SOFTWARE
AND PERIPHERALS DIVISION, OR THE PROVISION OF
SERVICES OR SUPPORT. DELL WILL NOT HAVE ANY LIABILITY
FOR ANY DAMAGES ARISING FROM THE USE OF THE
PRODUCTS IN ANY HIGH RISK ACTIVITY, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
LIMITED TO, THE OPERATION OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES,
AIRCRAFT NAVIGATION OR COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, AIR
TRAFFIC CONTROL, MEDICAL SYSTEMS, LIFE SUPPORT OR
WEAPONS SYSTEMS. DELL WILL NOT BE LIABLE FOR LOST
PROFITS, LOSS OF BUSINESS, OR OTHER INCIDENTAL,
INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, SPECIAL OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES,
EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES,
OR FOR ANY CLAIM BY ANY THIRD PARTY EXCEPT AS
EXPRESSLY PROVIDED HEREIN.
10 Clauses stupides



Do not use the ING DIRECT Web Site to communicate
to others, to post on the ING DIRECT Web Site, or
otherwise transmit to the ING DIRECT Web Site, any
materials, information, or communication that either
causes any harm to any person or that is illegal or
otherwise unlawful, including without limitation any
hateful, harassing, pornographic, obscene, profane,
defamatory, libellous, threatening materials which
constitutes or may encourage conduct that would be
considered, a criminal offence, give rise to civil liability,
promote the excessive, irresponsible or underage
consumption of alcohol, or otherwise violate any law or
regulation.

10 Clauses stupides



The limited warranty set forth below is given by
Canon U.S.A., Inc. (Canon U.S.A.) in the United
States or Canon Canada Inc., (Canon Canada) in
Canada with respect to the Canon-brand PowerShot
Digital Camera purchased with this limited warranty,
when purchased and used in the United States or
Canada.
10 Clauses stupides


11. Governing Law

This Agreement is governed by the law of
Sharps Audio Visual.

Solutions simples

Court
Langage accessible
Humanit
Lent
Visuel
1
Exemple intressant :
www.creativecommons.ca/
1
1399 CCQ


Le consentement doit tre libre et
clair.

2

A. Shrink wrap

B. Click wrap

C. Browse wrap
2
1 - shrink wrap





2.A
ProCD (US - 1996)
King (Canada - 1989)
;-)
2 - Click wrap Dell
Dell Computer c. Union des
consommateurs - Cours suprme du
Canada (13 juillet 2007)

2 questions principales
Clause arbitrale et consommation
Validit du eContract

Lire aussi Dell a gagn
2.B





Click 1
Click 2
Click 3
Click 4
Relativisons
1. LPC a t modifie
Interdit larbitrage de consommation
Le consentement est renforc
Le commerant doit prsenter ces renseignements de
manire vidente et intelligible et les porter expressment la
connaissance du consommateur
2. Clause externe (1435 CCQ) pas dans labsolu
La clause externe laquelle renvoie le contrat lie les parties.
Toutefois, dans un contrat de consommation ou d'adhsion,
cette clause est nulle si, au moment de la formation du contrat,
elle n'a pas t expressment porte la connaissance du
consommateur ou de la partie qui y adhre, moins que l'autre
partie ne prouve que le consommateur ou l'adhrent en avait
par ailleurs connaissance.
Pas de preuve
Relativisons
3. Consentement en gnral
suivant les seuls faits figurant au dossier et sans le
bnfice dun argument prcis sur le caractre
illisible ou incomprhensible de la clause
darbitrage, ma conclusion aurait t la mme si
lUnion avait aussi plaid que la clause tait illisible ou
incomprhensible au sens de lart. 1436 C.c.Q.
Comme il a t mentionn prcdemment, lhyperlien
en surbrillance parat chaque page laquelle le
consommateur accde et il na t prsent aucune
preuve permettant de conclure que le texte tait
difficile reprer lintrieur du document, ou quil
tait difficile lire ou comprendre.
Ceci tant dit cest
dommage
Ceci tant dit cest
dommage
Continuez, ne changez rien!
Contraire au marketing
Contraire la gestion qui base ses
prceptes sur le consommateur
Naide pas le commerce lectronique
Critre de laccessibilit est difficile
transposer en ligne
Dailleurs Dell a chang
3 - Browse wrap
2.C