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UNIT ONE

Theoretical Foundations
CHAPTER TWO
Classical Theories of Organizations
PREVIEW
Review Chapter One
Theoretical Relevancy
Minimizing Misunderstandings
Classical Theories of Organizations
Taylors Theory of Scientific Management
Fayols Administrative Theory
Webers Theory of Bureaucracy

Organizational Communication
Foundations REVIEW
the process of creating, exchanging,
interpreting (correctly or incorrectly), and
storing oral, nonverbal, and written messages
within (and across the boundaries of) a system
of interrelated and interdependent people
working to accomplish common tasks and goals
within an organization.

MESSAGE-CENTERED DEFINITION
Assumptions and Features
Communication is central to the existence of
the organization

Organizational communication is a complex
process (creating, exchanging, interpreting,
and storing messages)

Misunderstandings occur
Misunderstandings
Instances in which people who are
communicating dont share meanings as
well as situations in which features of
organizational life serve to impinge upon
the efficient and effective functioning of
organizational members.
Three Important Constructs
Organizational I dentification (process & product)
An active process by which individuals link themselves to
elements (people, policies, products, services, customers, values)
in the social scene.
Involves an individuals sense of membership in and connection
with an organization.
J ob Satisfaction
The degree to which employees feel fulfilled by their job and
related experiences.
A pleasurable or positive emotional state from the appraisal of
ones job or experiences
Linked to absenteeism and turnover
Communication Satisfaction
The degree to which employees feel that communication is
appropriate and satisfies their need for information and work
relationships
Communication Satisfaction (CSQ)
Eight Factors concerned with communication information,
relationships, channels, and climate
Communication Climate
Relationship to Supervisors
Organizational Integration
Media Quality
Horizontal and Informal Communication
Organizational Perspective
Relationship with Subordinates
Personal Feedback

Communication satisfaction is often considered the sum
of an individuals satisfaction with the above dimensions.
Primary Goal
Reduce misunderstandings
through communication.
Theory
An explanation for how or
why something occurs. . .

Question: What is the most
efficient and effective means
of running an organization?
Functions of Theory
Describe
Explain
Predict
Control

Classical approaches to organizational
management and early organizational theories
were designed to predict and control behavior
in organizations.
Classical Theories of
Organizations
Emerged in early part of the twentieth century.
Models were military and the Catholic Church.
Features
Strict CONTROL of workers
Absolute CHAINS of COMMAND
PREDICTABILITY of behavior
UNIDIRECTIONAL downward influence

Classical Theories of Organizations:
Relevancy and Metaphor
How and Why does studying classical theory
help us to understand how modern organizations
function and particularly the role that
communication plays in effective organizing?

What is the metaphor which characterizes the
classical approach to organizations?
The Metaphor of the Machine
Organizations are viewed as if they are machines.
Managerial principles
Modes of operation
Treatment of workers
Communication in the organization
Properties of Machines
Very predictable
Rarely deviates from the norm
Replace defective parts with other standard parts
Specific rules exist regarding repair and specific roles
Organizational Application
Workers behave predictably-management knows what to expect
Workers operating outside expectations are replaced
Minimizing Misunderstandings
Simple: Promote principles of SPECIALIZATION,
STANDARDIZATION, and PREDICTABILITY

STRICT RULES & REGULATIONS regarding . . .
how work is accomplished,
who could speak to whom and when, and
managing through fear.

PROBLEMS
Creativity and intelligence are underutilized
Increased dissatisfaction
Decreased motivation and commitment to task and organization
Decreased communication effectiveness and satisfaction
Distinguishing Classical Theories
Creative Application Skit
Theory Matchbook Definition
Describe the theory in a nutshell
Principles of Management
Major Elements of the Theory
Application in the Modern Workplace
Personal Example(s)
How are misunderstandings minimized?
What new forms of misunderstandings are created?
Unintentional by-products
Contributions to occurrences of different problems
Taylors Theory of Scientific Management
Frederick Taylor (1856-1915)
The Father of Scientific Management
Maximize worker capacity and profits
PROBLEM: Get employees to work at their maximum capacity
PRIMARY FOCUS: TASKS
http://www.northstar.k12.ak.us/schools/ryn/projects/inventors/taylor/taylor.html
Systematic Soldiering
Deliberately working slowly as to avoid expanding more effort
than deemed necessary
Reasons
Reduction in workforce due to decreased need
Piecework system of remuneration - raise production requirements
without increasing pay
Rule of thumb training methods - inefficient

Taylors Theory of Scientific Management
Elements of Scientific Management
Scientific design of every aspect of every task
Time and Motion Studies
Careful selection and training of every task
Proper remuneration for fast and high-quality work
Maximize output - increase pay
Equal division of work and responsibility between worker and manager
Underlying Themes
Managers are intelligent; workers are and should be ignorant
Provide opportunities for workers to achieve greater financial rewards
Workers are motivated almost solely by wages
Maximum effort = Higher wages
Manager is responsible for planning, training, and evaluating

Taylors Theory of Scientific Management
Application in the Modern Workplace
Assembly Line Plants as Prototypical Examples
Prisoners of Taylorism
System of Remuneration (quotas - commission)
Re-Design - Reengineering
Benchmarking
Data are used to refine, improve, change, modify, and
eliminate organizational processes
Lean Manufacturing

Fayols Administrative Theory
Henri Fayol (1841-1925)
General and Industrial Management
Principles and Elements of Management - how
managers should accomplish their managerial duties
PRIMARY FOCUS: Management
(Functions of Administration)
More Respect for Worker than Taylor
Workers are motivated by more than money
Equity in worker treatment
More PRESCRIPTIVE
http://www.lib.uwo.ca/business/fayol.html
Fayols Administrative Theory
Five Elements of Management -- Managerial Objectives
Planning
Organizing
Command
Coordination
Control
Keep machine functioning effectively and efficiently
Replace quickly and efficiently any part or process that did
not contribute to the objectives

Fayols Administrative Theory
Fourteen Principles of Management (Tools for Accomplishing Objectives)
Division of work - limited set of tasks
Authority and Responsibility - right to give orders
Discipline - agreements and sanctions
Unity of Command - only one supervisor
Unity of Direction - one manager per set of activities
Subordination of Individual Interest to General Interest
Remuneration of Personnel - fair price for services
Centralization - reduce importance of subordinates role
Scalar Chain - Fayols bridge
Order - effective and efficient operations
Equity - kindliness and justice
Stability of Tenure of Personnel - sufficient time for familiarity
Initiative - managers should rely on workers initiative
Esprit de corps - union is strength loyal members
Fayols Administrative Theory
Positioned communication as a necessary ingredient to
successful management

Application in the Modern Workplace
Fayols elements of management are recognized as the
main objectives of modern managers
Planning - more participatory
Organizing - human relationships and communication
IMPORTANT TABLE 2.1 Comparison of Managerial
Skills (p. 32)
Especially applicable for large organizations (military)



Webers Theory of Bureaucracy
Max Weber (1864-1920)
German Sociologist
Theory of Social and Economic Organization (1947)
Principles and Elements of Management - describe an
ideal or pure form of organizational structure (general
policy and specific commands
PRIMARY FOCUS: Organizational Structure
Worker should respect the right of managers to
direct activities dictated by organizational rules and
procedures
More DESCRIPTIVE
http://www2.pfeiffer.edu/~lridener/DSS/Weber/WEBRPER.HTML

Webers Theory of Bureaucracy
Bureaucracy allows for the optimal form of
authority - rational authority

Three types of Legitimate Authority
Traditional Authority - past customs; personal loyalty
Charismatic Authority - personal trust in character and
skills
Rational Authority - rational application of rules or
laws

Webers Theory of Bureaucracy
Tenets of Bureaucracy
Rules
Specified sphere of competence
Hierarchy
Specialized Training
Workers do not own technology
No entitlement to official position by incumbent
Everything written down
Maintenance of ideal type - bureaucracy
Webers Theory of Bureaucracy
Concerned with describing the ideal structure of
an organization
Cornerstone: existence of written rules

The rational application of written rules ensures
the promotion of legitimate authority and the
effective and efficient functioning of the
organization.
Webers Theory of Bureaucracy
Application in the Modern Workplace
Large organizations guided by countless rules
are bureaucracies
Linked with inefficient, slow-moving
organizations
Organizations have several characteristics of
bureaucracies
SUMMARY
Classical Theories of Organizations (p. 36)
Taylors Theory of Scientific Management
Fayols Administrative Theory
Webers Theory of Bureaucracy
All 3 theories attempt to enhance managements ability to
predict and control the behavior of their workers
Considered only the task function of communication
(ignored relational and maintenance functions of
communication)
Designed to predict and control behavior in organizations
NEXT WEEK
Read CHAPTER 3: Humanistic Theories of Organizations
(pp. 39-62)
Human Relations Theory
The Hawthorne Studies
McGregors Theory X and Theory Y
Human Resources Theory
Likerts Systems Theory (Four Systems of
Management)
Blake and Moutons (a.k.a. Blake and McCanse)
Managerial Grid