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Technology in

Arts Education
Ruth Currey
ARE 6666 Arts Advocacy
Art challenges technology and the technology inspires the art.
The Motivation
As an art teacher who also teaches computer animation, I have seen the impact
technology has had in the arts and how the arts audience has been expanded
by the introduction of technology into the field.

Unfortunately, I have also seen how technology integration can be
misunderstood and ignored because of the lack of information and standards
to support proper implementation

The Problem
There are no current policies that incorporate technology into the Pre K -20

Technology standards that exist accommodate the technology integration into
core subjects such as language arts, mathematics, and the sciences

When technology is added to arts standards, it typically replaces the word
media and is never specifically defined
Promote excellence and equity in comprehensive visual arts education
for all people, beginning with pre-K 16 education, leading to career
opportunities as well as life-long learning in schools, colleges,
universities, museums, and cultural and community activities.
SECAC Mission Statement #1 (2004)
Sunshine State Standards
The word technology is not seen once within the standards set up for
the arts
All use of technology in the classroom is implied based on the
Teachers using technology have to try to make their curriculum
fit into small ill-equipped frameworks designed with the tactile
arts in mind

Adaptations have been made to the Sunshine State Standards to demonstrate
how the standards imply the use of technology (UCF / ITRC)
These attempts are still vague and do not address the actual needs of the
Technology and the Florida Sunshine State Standards
Instructional Technology Resource Center (ITRC) @ UCF

The Arts
Understand the ways various media can be used to reinforce, enhance or
alter a dance idea
Uses technology to enhance a movement study
Uses unified production concepts and techniques for various media
Uses scientific and technological advances to develop visual and aural
staging elements that complement the interpretation of a text

Applied Technology Standards
University of South Florida

Applies planning methods to decision-making related to life and work roles.
Integrates academic and applied technology principles into the workplace.
Applies appropriate technology to an industry to solve technical and
production problems.
Analyzes and communicates the impact that industry and the community
have on each other and on the individual.
Employs management techniques to manage projects and enterprises
related to work and life roles.
Providing ALL students the opportunity to express themselves creatively
Many art teachers are stuck in the old-school curriculum
of teaching the elements and principles of art via drawing,
painting, and ceramics. They unintentionally discourage
many students who may not appear to be artistic because
they can only draw a stick figure from taking art.
(Ash, 2008, p.1)

Artistic Equity - SECAC
According to the 2004 SECAC Policy Mission Statement:
1.Promote excellence and equity in comprehensive visual arts education for all people
If we expect equity through a subject that embraces diversity, how can we ensure
that each student is getting an equal opportunity to express themselves?

If we limit the vehicles and types of art that students are exposed to, does that not
hinder their right to have the opportunity to express themselves freely?

Can it be assumed that since students who create work solely by means of
computers that they are not considered artists and therefore should not have
the same equitable time with their medium?
A brief survey was given to approximately 100 animation students asking them to discuss how
they feel about technology and its relationship to art. Some of the questions provided include:

Do you consider yourself an artist?
Using your abilities, do you feel you can draw equally well using traditional mediums?
If animation/graphic design we not available, what other classes would you take?
Do you feel your expressive needs are being met by these alternate classes?
Do you feel these classes will teach you the same skills as your technology based art

Informal Research
Results indicated that approximately 72% of the students considered themselves to
be artists.

Of those 72%, 68% of them felt they would not be able to achieve equal success
with traditional mediums

Results also indicated that the majority of the students (approximately 83%) felt that
they would take electives outside of the arts if technology based art programs were
not available because they do not feel they would be successful in a traditional class
SECAC Adjustments
1c. Encourage broad audience development through the visual and digital arts by
comprehensive programs that incorporate contemporary and relevant issues in art,
new technological advances in art, and by active collaboration between public and
private organizations, including community based resources, museums, corporations,
government agencies, and pre K 20 schools.

2a. Strive for more collaborative policy involvement and initiatives between higher
education institutions, recognizing that research in art education and technological
innovation are vital links between the visual arts, humanities, social/natural sciences,
and mathematics.

Art Education faculty should have access and be encouraged to attend appropriate
technology based trainings on arts integration and implementation in order to provide a
more equitable environment in a contemporary setting.

Support systems, both live and virtual must be established and maintained in order to
accommodate the needs of the technological considerations, but also the needs and
concerns of educators

3. Develop and maintain electronic means to share library and teacher resources and
image databases at SECAC member institutions with public school students, either on-site
or electronically.
Proposed Sunshine State Standards
for Technology Based Arts Education
Adjusted standards based on considerations from the following:
Current Visual Arts Sunshine State Standards
Education World National Technology Standards
University of Central Florida ITRC Technology Standards
University of South Florida Applied Technology Standards

Some standards are the same or similar to the original Sunshine State Standards
for the Visual Arts because they maintain their integrity and relevance to include
technology based arts as well as the visual arts.
The ultimate goal is to avoid the basic replacement of the word media with the word
technology and instead provide a starting point for the creation of a set of
standards to integrate and implement technology into the art classroom.
Once adjustments are made to the SECAC Policy Statement that establish the
necessity of technology, a set of Sunshine State Standards needs to be created
in order to accommodate technological needs within the art classroom
1. Uses static and kinetic two-dimensional and three-dimensional media,
techniques, tools, and processes to communicate an idea or concept based on
technology-based research, environment, personal experience, observation,
media exposure, or imagination.

2. Demonstrates an understanding of the tools, media, processes, and techniques
necessary to proficiently use technology in a safe and responsible manner.

3. Understands how the elements of art and the principles of design can be
combined in order to solve specific graphic and kinetic visual problems in a three
dimensional space.

4. Uses effective control of media, techniques, and tools when communicating an idea
in both static graphic imagery and two-dimensional and three-dimensional kinetic

Operations, Skills, and Techniques
The student understands and applies techniques and processes
to technology based media (DA.A.1.4)
Boxes with Fires: Wisely Integrating Learning
Technologies into the Art Classroom
By Diane C. Gregory
Art Education, 62(3) 2009, pp. 47 54.
Art teachers typically use established computer technologies as teaching or
Presentation tools rather than facilitating students creative production and
Thinking, collaborative learning, problem-solving, and higher order thinking.
(Gregory, 2009, p. 48)
Educators understand the value of putting artmaking tools within the hands of each
Technology is not always considered an artmaking tool and is ignored when
considering artmaking options
Technology tends to be expensive, but can be reused by multiple students
over the course of the day

Art educators wish to promote creative risk-taking ventures where students are
allowed to experiment, practice, and in some cases fail in order to succeed
Cost of materials increases to compensate for mistakes and remade
Technology allows for more opportunities to practice skills without the
fear of increased costs for supplies or having to start from scratch
1. Applies various subjects, symbols, and ideas in works of digital art.

2. Understands that static and kinetic media formats can communicate information
and ideas effectively through the use of specific techniques and processes.

3. Understands the basic implications and intentions of print and kinetic media and
the purposes within each particular work.

4. knows how the elements of art and principles of design can enhance productivity
and promote creativity by solving static and kinetic graphic problems

Productivity and Communication
The student creates and communicates a range of subject matter,
symbols, and ideas using knowledge of structures and processes
of technology-based arts. (DA.B.1.4)
Implications for Art Education in the
Third Millennium: Art Technology Integration
By Sherry Mayo
Art Education, 60(3) 2007, pp. 45-51.
Art educators have the unique opportunity to integrate studio practice with
technology that can help lead the way in teaching with technology and crossing
boundaries between real-world materials and digital media. (Mayo, 2007, p. 50)

There are those who are afraid of computer art taking over the traditional forms all
together if allowed to integrate into the art classrooms

Although the artists have the option to use traditional formats or digital formats
the need for artists is growing in our modern society

The fact that the world is changing rapidly between moments, the arts need to
embrace their advantages over the other content areas and utilize the
technology at their disposal

Artists, both digital and traditional are similar to researchers in that they create new
knowledge through studio practice
Article Proposes:
1. Understands and recognizes how visual arts have directly affected, or influenced
necessary changes in technological advances

2. Understands how technology based art has inspired and furthered possibilities
available to the visual arts through historical and contemporary collaboration.

3. Understands how social, cultural, ecological, economic, religious, and political
conditions influence the function, meaning, and execution of works of digital arts,
advertising, and animation.

4. Practices responsible and ethical use of technology based media, information,
and software for research and productivity
Historical, Social, and Human Connections
The student understand the digital arts in relation to history and
contemporary multicultural society (DA.C.1.4)
Art Education Aims in the Age of New Media:
Moving Toward Global Civil Society
By Elizabeth M. Delacruz
Art Education, 62(5) September 2009, pp. 13-18
One only has to observe the media-savvy youth of today to be inspired to want to
help shape young peoples understandings and uses of new digital technologies.
(Delacruz, 2009, p. 16)

Art education is an inconclusive and contested arena, with competing demands
and prescriptions for reform in the 21
century. (Delacruz, 2009, p. 16)

Educators have long called for an art education curriculum that facilitates
contemporary understandings of the complexities of art and culture,
democracy, multicultural and intercultural education, humanness, and
civil society

New technologies facilitate and promote new forms of creative expression and
inquiry about diverse art and other forms of creative cultural expression

Art Education finds a good fit with new digital media, particularly with our affinity
for art making, design, aesthetic inquiry, interpretation, and open-ended learning
because of their eclectic nature and access to creative endeavors

1. Understands and determines the differences between the artists intent and
public interpretation through evaluative criteria and judgment.

2. Understands critical and aesthetic statements in terms of historical reference
while researching technological innovations and their implications to the visual

3. Determines the difference between the intentions of artists in the creation of
original works and the intentions of individuals and companies who appropriate
and parody those works.

4. Uses technology to locate, collect and evaluate pertinent information regarding
historical and contemporary issues in art efficiently

5. Uses technology to evaluate accuracy and credibility of contemporary sources
of information and research data.

6. Researches new technological advances and their implications and processes
in order to accurately evaluate productivity and effective use of technological
Aesthetic and Critical Research Analysis
The student discusses, evaluates, and responds to the components
and implications of technology based artworks. (DA.D.1.4)
Strong need for research databases and digital infrastructures for research
and searchable media
Digital resources should be considered on the same plane as textbooks
Encourages a culture of innovation and appreciation of aesthetic theory
Masterpieces of art should be considered from multiple perspectives
Introduces students to aesthetic perception
Pays systematic attention to sensory, formal, technical, and expressive
Enhances and encourages creative expression and personal reflection
Introducing digital work through humanities bridges the gap between
traditional and contemporary perspectives
Maintains a level of relevancy is technology and art grow together
rather than as separate entities
Demonstrates and encourages higher order thinking by supporting
Imaginative skills and creativity are as essential as cognitive skills
Expanding Arts Education in a Digital Age
By Haeryun Choi and Joseph Piro
Arts Education Policy Review, 110(3), 2009, pp. 27-34
Arts education policymakers who will shape twenty-first-century policy must keep
an eye on trend lines and focus their efforts to recognize that the arts will be not
only desirable in helping us negotiate the digital age, but indispensible. (Choi, 2009, p. 32)
1. Knows and participates in community-based technology based art experiences
as an artist or observer.

2. Understands and identifies the skills that digital artists use in various careers to
across multiple artistic platforms to promote creativity, fluency, flexibility, and
collaboration within both the digital arts and visual arts.

3. Uses multiple facets of technology to connect and communicate with the public,
the consumer, and the artistic community regarding aesthetic concerns and
questions, entertainments potential and responsibility, research and resources
accessibility and their impact on education requirements for potential career

4. Uses technology resources for solving problems and making informed decisions
in regards to both static graphic arts and kinetic two and three dimensional digital
Real World Applications
The student makes direct connections between up-to-date technology,
the visual arts, and their application to the real world. (DA.E.1.4)
Technology as Arts-Based Education:
Does the Desktop Reflect the Arts?
By Peter Gouzouasis
Arts Education Policy Review, 107(5) 2006, pp. 3-9.
Suggests that not all technology can be grouped into the same category
Some technology is designed for the sciences and business
Some technology is based on creative expression

Emphasis on Real-World Applications
Industry decision makers who hire designers for Web Designs do not just
hire someone who can push a mouse, the mechanics are simply not good

Art and Technology are in a constant argument over which is more important
The arts struggle to achieve status as a core area of study while the
technologies struggle to receive respect from the arts community

Art is the queen of all sciences communicating knowledge to
all of the generations of the world. Leonardo da Vinci
(Gouzouasis, 2006, p. 8)
Problems Proposed
Since technology has different categories the language of policies should specify

Real world situations require knowledge of not only technological processes, but
also artistic understanding and aesthetic values

Digital media requires artistic viewpoints and legitimately belongs in an
art based environment

Outside of arts education, the impact of technology on the arts has been
monumental both in its impact on access to the arts and as an emerging

The arts and technologies can work together and not against each other to
achieve a sustainable and viable future in the realm of education
Technology as Arts-Based Education: Does the Desktop Reflect the Arts?
By Peter Gouzouasis

In the same way as artists think of tools as extensions of the human mind, so should
we begin to think of digital media. When used artistically and to our advantage,
technologies are helpful. (Gouzouasis, 2006, p. 8)
Flyers, Brochures, and PDF files
can be sent out to inform the public
as well as policymakers, and
educators about the benefits of
creating new standards for the
integration of technology into the
art classrooms

By exposing a large audience to the
potential opportunities to be gained
through technology integration and
by having a set of standards ready
to be submitted for approval, the
likelihood of increasing support
Trainings need to be offered to
educate and introduce educators to
the potential benefits of integration
Ash, K. (2008). Digital Approach to Art Education Gains Momentum. Retrieved October
10, 2009, from Ed Weeks Digital Directions Website:

Brewer, T. (2005). Revising the SECAC Visual Arts Education Policy Statement: Putting
Teeth Into It. Arts Education Policy Review, 106(5), pp. 21-27.

Choi, H. (2009). Expanding Arts Education in a Digital Age. Arts Education Policy
Review, 110(3), pp. 27-34.

Delacruz, E. (2009). Art Education Aims in the Age of New Media: Moving Toward
Global Civil Society. Art Education, 62(5), pp. 13-18.

Gouzouasis, P. (2006). Technology as Arts-Based Education: Does the Desktop Reflect
the Arts? Arts Education Policy Review, 107(5), pp. 3-9.

Gregory, D. (2009). Boxes with Fires: Wisely Integrating Learning Technologies into
the Art Classroom. Art Education, 62(3), pp. 47-54.

Mayo, S. (2007). Implications for Art Education in the Third Millennium: Art Technology
Integration. Art Education, 60(3), pp. 45-51.

University of Central Florida. (2008). Technology and the Florida Sunshine State
Standards. Retrieved October 20, 2009 from Instructional Technology Resource Center

University of South Florida. (2009). Applied Technology Standards. Retrieved November
1, 2009 from Standards and Software Webpage:

University of South Florida. (1995). Visual Arts Sunshine State Standards. Retrieved
September 28, 2009 from Standards Webpage: