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Topic 3
Site Assessment
Site survey basic steps
Understand individual environment
requirements to determine the best fire
protection system
Assess the function of the environment
Assess the risk factors in the environment
Assess the internal configuration of the
environment
Survey the airflow characteristics and air
change rate
Survey the coverage area
Survey the sensitivity required
Survey the room(s) size and
characteristics eg, high ceilings, raised
floor, etc


- Give careful consideration to environmental conditions that may affect the ability of the
sampling network to obtain an air sample. Factors such as:
- high air velocities
- frequent air changes
- air pressure variations
- air temperature.
- Variations within the area to be protected will all affect system performance, and may
require the use of at least one other VESDA sampling method to effectively monitor the
fire zone
- To ensure a satisfactory airflow through the air sampling network and the Detector , the
aspirator should exhaust to an equal or lower atmospheric pressure than that of the
protected area.


Environmental Conditions
Topic 4
Pipe Network Design
Regulatory Requirements
The optimum detector sensitivity takes the following into
consideration: Level of protection needed, room environment,
nature of work done.
In designing an air sampling network, due consideration must be
given to relevant Fire Codes, Standards and Regulations that may
govern such issues as
maximum permissible response time;
maximum allowable area coverage for a single sampling
point;
distance of sampling points from bordering walls;
Maximum spacing between sampling points


General Design Guidelines
A maximum of four sampling pipe runs connected
to each VESDA Detector is recommended although
some systems can have up to eight pipes, with
each pair of pipes branched at the Detector inlet.
The combined length of pipe runs from a single
VESDA Detector should not exceed 650 ft.
Individual pipe lengths should not exceed 325ft.
However, where response times in excess of 60
seconds are acceptable, the combined length of all
pipe runs can be extended beyond the 650 ft. limit.
The ASPIRE modeling system should be used to
determine the maximum number of sampling points per
pipe run.
The designer should use national codes for Point
Detector spacing as the criteria for determining the
minimum number of sampling points.
The default sampling hole size is 5/64
Sample Point Spacing Guidelines
A Grid Overlaid on Construction Plans
Location of
sampling point
or smoke
detector.
This layout is
using a grid
overlay concept.
Grid overlay
Sampling Points Arranged with a Grid Layout
Maximum
zone size
20,000 sq
ft

Sampling pipes
Sampling points
VESDA
Detector
5ft 10ft
10ft
10ft 10ft 10ft
10ft
10ft
5ft
5ft
5ft
Grid Overlay
10m
5.0m
7.0m
5.0m
10m grid
Grid Overlay
Sampling pipes
Sampling points
VESDA


Detector
Regulatory Requirements
More details:
You must comply with the local standards that are applicable for
your area and application.
Australia
U.K. and Europe
North
America
Codes & Standards
VESDA detectors are UL268
listed for primary detection
Over 300,000 VESDA units have been installed around the world
in a diverse range of environments and has gained global
approvals:

FM (USA)
UL (USA)
ULC (Canada)
CSFM (California)
LPC (UK)
AFNOR (France)
VdS (Germany)
SSL (Australia)
NC (China)

NFPA STANDARDS
NFPA 72 - NATIONAL FIRE ALARM CODE

NFPA 75 - COMPUTER / DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT

NFPA 76 TELECOMMUNICATIONS

NFPA 318 - PROTECTION OF CLEAN ROOMS

NFPA 850 PROTECTION FOR ELECTRIC GENERATING PLANTS

NFPA 909 -PROTECTION OF CULTURAL RESOURCES

NFPA 914 PROTECTION OF HISTORIC STRUCTURES

NFPA 2001 - CLEAN AGENT EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS
CODES Relative to Extinguishing
NFPA 2 Hydrogen Technologies Code
NFPA 11 Standard for lo, med, hi expansion foam
NFPA 12 Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems
NFPA 12a Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems

5.7.3.3 Air Sampling-Type Smoke Detector.

5.7.3.3.1:
Each sampling port of an air sampling-type smoke detector shall be treated as a spot-type
detector for the purpose of location and spacing.




5.7.3.3.2:
Maximum air sample transport time from the farthest sampling point shall not exceed 120
seconds.
NFPA 72 - 2002 EDITION
NFPA 72 - 2002 EDITION
5.7.3.3.7
Air sampling network piping and fittings shall be airtight and permanently fixed. **

5.7.3.3.8
Sampling system piping shall be conspicuously identified as SMOKE DETECTOR
SAMPLING TUBE.DO NOT DISTURB, as follows:
(A) At changes in direction or branches of piping;
(B) At each side of penetrations of walls, floors, or other barriers;
(C) At intervals on piping that provide visibility within the space, but no greater than 20
ft.

* * EXCEPT AT THE INLET MANIFOLD OF THE DETECTOR!!!
TABLE 10.4.2.2 TEST METHODS
DEVICE
3. Air Sampling
METHOD
Per manufacturers recommended test methods,
detector alarm response shall be verified through the end sampling
port on each pipe run;
airflow through all other ports shall be verified as well.
Alarm Response:
Take off alarm delays.
Spray smoke into the farthest sample hole (End Vent) from
the detector.
Using a stop watch, time the time taken for the detector to
respond to the increase of smoke.
Airflow:
Using a digital manometer, measure the pressure readings
at the sample holes & compare to the initial readings.
Air Sampling methods
When designing a pipe network, the key area for protection to consider are:
1. Does the room need protection?
2. Does the air handling unit need protection?
3. Does the object need protection?
The three basic air sampling methods used to protect a room are:
Standard Pipe Sampling Systems
(below ceiling or floor void or above cabinet)
Capillary tube sampling
(concealed, above-ceiling, or within cabinets).
Return air sampling
(within duct or return air grille)
Inter-beam sampling
(more details in separate application course)
Air Sampling - Introduction
The most basic and widely used sampling method involves suspending
lengths of CPVC/PVC pipe of internal diameter (ID is 0.87,
normal) over the area to be protected.
The pipes can be arranged in a variety of ways so that they cover the
whole area of the monitored fire zone.
These lengths of pipe are then connected to the Detector inlet manifold
(normally up to four for each Detector).
Each of the pipe lengths has a number of small holes spaced along its
length that act as sampling points.
The far end of each sampling pipe is terminated by a vented endcap
designed to balance the smoke sensitivity of each of the sampling
points.

Designing a pipe network - basics
Is there moving air in the
environment requiring fire
protection?
Is there objects in the
environment requiring fire
protection?
A simple environment requiring
fire protection
Below Ceiling Sampling example 1

Below-ceiling
sampling
For ceiling mounted applications, sampling points
should be at least 1 inch, but not more than 4 inches
below the ceiling and should be oriented down into the
room space.
This arrangement places the sampling points beneath
the small boundary layer of warm air that causes
smoke stratification and is common in heated
environments or in actual fire conditions.


Standard Sampling Pipe Network Guidelines
Capillary sampling - Introduction
Capillary sampling is a means of locating sampling points
away from the main sampling pipe without creating
extremely complex networks.
Typically, this method uses short 3 ft12 ft lengths of 3/16
inch1/2 inch ID flexible tubing that branches off from the
trunk pipe and then penetrates a given surface.
Capillary sampling is useful where there is a localized
monitoring of equipment cabinets is required.
The sample hole location is marked with a printed decal
around the sample hole.

Sampling trunk
pipe
Capillary tube
Trunkadaptor
(any orientation)
Miniature
sampling point
fitting
Ceiling panel
or tile
A typical concealed sampling installation. The sampling point fitting places the sampling hole more than 25 mm (1
inch) below the ceiling panel or tile.
Ceiling capillary sampling

With concealed sampling, the trunk pipe network runs through a ceiling
void and capillary tubes branch off at regular intervals to penetrate the
ceiling panels or tiles
The end of each capillary tube is terminated in a sampling point fitting
The end vent of each pipe run should penetrate the protected area
In some circumstances, an even more discreet means of sampling is
needed.
This is usually the case in historical buildings or in decorated interiors.
A capillary tube branches from the trunk pipe and penetrates into the
fire zone.

Concealed Sampling Pipework
Mansion in Brazil
Sample hole
Historic registered Liberty Theater 65 dome Astoria OR.
The minimum capillary tube ID is 0.2 inch.

Although capillary tubes can be any length up to 26 ft it will be
necessary to increase the capillary tube ID as the length of the
tube increases.


Concealed Sampling Guidelines
Inter-beam Sampling
Walking Sticks
are typically used
between inter
beam areas and
difficult to get to
places
Return Air Sampling
Smoke diluted by
air samples
collected closer to
the detector
High
concentration
smoke collected
here
Air
grille
1
Air
grille
2
Air
grille
3
Air
grille
4
AHU#1 AHU#2
VESDA
Detector
Sampling pipes
Standoffs Standoffs
Sealed
endcap
Sealed
endcap
Esc
1.0
VESDA
LaserPLUS
FAULTS
System
Zone
Urgent
Power
Network
Airflow
Filter
Mode
Test
Silence
Scan Reset Isolate
OK
Isolated
Sensitivity
Smoke Level
Zone Number
First Alarm
Sector
Return Air Grille Sampling
Return Air Sampling
Sampling
point
angled
(between
20 to 45
deg) to
obtain best
air sample
AHU
Path of return air stream
AHU vent
In areas of high assessed risk only two AHUs should be monitored by a
single Detector.
Additionally, only one AHU should be monitored by each sampling pipe.
Return Air Grille Sampling
Standoff post
100 to 200 mmlong
(4 in to 8 in)
Sampling
pipe
Self tapping
screws
AHU
Sampling point
angled to obtain
best air sample
AHUvent
Path of
return
airstream
In-Duct Sampling
Exhaust probe from detector
Intake probe to detector
AIR
FLOW
AIRFLOW
A pressure curve forms
around the pipe as the
airflow passes around it
(20 to 45 deg angle)
In-Duct Sampling
Reference Sampling
Air Sampling External Source (Reference Zone)
Reference Detector
V
E
S
D
A
n
e
t

VESDAnet
Sampling Pipes sampling Zone 1
VESDA Zone 5
(Reference Zone)
Sampling Pipes sampling Zone 2
Sampling Pipes sampling Zone 4 Sampling Pipes sampling Zone 3
Detector
monitoring
internal area
VESDA Zone 1
(Reference
reading is
subtracted)
Detector
monitoring
internal area
VESDA Zone 2
(Reference
reading is
subtracted)
Detector
monitoring
internal area
VESDA Zone 4
(Reference
reading is
subtracted)
Detector
monitoring
internal area
VESDA Zone 3
(Reference
reading is
subtracted)
Effects of using multiple pipes
Smoke diluted by air
samples closer to the
detector (low
concentration)
Smoke picked up
here (high
concentration)
VESDA
LaserPLUS 88
1 4 3 2
x
Worst
Option
1 4 3 2
VESDA
LaserPLUS 88
Shorter pipe runs mean
that dilution from smoke
free air is less of a
problem
Best
Option
ASPIRE2 - One Pipe
6
11
16
ASPIRE2 - Two Pipes
6
ASPIRE2 - Four Pipes
ASPIRE2 Summary
When using APIRE2, all parameter changes must be
followed by the compute (calculate) command.