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Productivity expresses the relationship between

the outputs from a system and the inputs


which go in its creation.
Productivity= Output
Input
Efficiency=Actual Output
Std Output

Productivity means the


balance between all factors
of production that will give
the greater output for the
smallest effort.

- Peter Drucker

Better utilization of resources


Higher employee remuneration
Enhanced goodwill
Set standards for smaller firms
Cost reduction
Higher Profitability

Financial stability
Export Promotion
Revenue to Government
Better returns to shareholders
Higher credit rating
Face competition

Employees
C
A
P
A
C
I
T
Y

EDUCATION

Level of technology
Co-ordination

WORK ENVIRONMENT

PLANNING
UNITY OF COMMAND
SPAN OF CONTROL

Single Factor
labour, land, capital
Total Factor

Human and Technical factors


Added Value
Sales Revenue Material Costs

Labour Productivity

Output
no. of man hours

20,000/50*100

Capital Productivity

Value of Output
Capital

20,000/700000

Land Productivity

Total Output
Area of land

2000/5000

Machine
Productivity

Total Output
Machine hrs

2000/400

PERT & CPM


Quality Circles
Value Engineering
Operations Research
Work Simplification
Ergonomics
Job enrichment
Job Enlargement

IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY TO REDUCE


COST
Human base
Labour participation

Effective communication
Mutual trust and cooperation
Positive /constructive approach
to trade unions
Rationalization
Incentive schemes
Welfare faculties
Training facilities
Provisions of inputs
Maintenance

Technological Base
Material handling

Layout of machines
Inspection
Planning of production

Cheaper better substitutes


Standardization of work

Conduct seminars
Periodic survey-productivity survey
Literature-monthly and quarterly journals
Library-at New Delhi-information in electronic and paper
format
Productivity consciousness-9 regional directorate
Guidance to industrial units-efficient utilization of fuel and
heat
Supports Asian Productivity Organization
Foreign Delegates-experts to give lectures on improvement
Send Delegates Abroad-sponsored by NPC
Productivity councils-at industrial levels
Productivity committee-at plant level

Solutions

Problems

Solutions

Problems

QUALITY CIRCLES (Q.C.)


Operational mechanism of Q.C. is for quality improvement & is
based on Cause & Effect analysis
It was 1st presented by Prof. Keoru Ishikawa of University of Tokyo
in 1950.
The diagram given by him is called Cause & Effect Diagram (C & E)
or Fish Bone Diagram (F.B)
C & E Diagram is a picture of lines & symbols designed to represent
a relationship between the net result and the causes responsible for
inferior quality
The deficiencies can be in either of 4Ms Men, Material, Machine
or Method
The Q.C. members have to study them properly for suitable
remedial measures

QUALITY CIRCLES (Q.C.)


Provides a new role of advisor to management & also permits
workers & traditional trade unions to bring about changes in the
leadership style
The concept of Q.C. is being experimented in various service
sectors & Professional bodies
Q.C. movement was started by BHEL, Hyderabad & also the 1st Q.C.
was established in the year 1980 at BHEL only in India
1st government department to introduce was CPWD
At present, there 200 enterprises & more than 105 industrial units
Some obstacles faced in implementation are:
conservative attitude of management
Lack of internal communication facilities, etc.

ISO-9000
What is it?
How many countries have adopted it?
Why it is preferred?
What it consists of?
What is the registration procedure?

ISO-14000

ISO-14000
What are the main areas which ISO-14000 looks
into?
Organizational Evaluation:
Environmental Management System Standard
Environmental Auditing Standards
Environmental Performance Evaluation Standards
Product Evaluation:
Environmental Labeling Standards
Life Cycle Assessment
Environmental Aspects in Product Standards

PRESENTED BY:
Ranjita Chatterjee-06
Tanvi karvat-22
Nirali Parekh-30
Mayuri Punamiya-36
Nisha Seth-44