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Als PPT, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Crack Blunting
- Fracture Mechanics
- Fracture Toughness
- STP1236-EB.1415051-1.pdf
- ASTM-D5045 Fracture Toughness Testing
- Artigo 7 - j and Ctod Estimation for Homogeneous-2
- Chapter 2 - General Fracture Mechanics
- Evaluation of WST Method as a Fatigue Test for Plain and Fiber-reinforced Concrete
- Welding Underwater
- 02LEFM
- Frature NBR and FKM
- FEA Crack Modelling
- Fracture toughnessi
- STP736-EB.1415051-1.pdf
- Http Www.twi-global
- (the Mineralogical Society Series 1) David J. Barber, Philip G. Meredith (Auth.)-Deformation Processes in Minerals, Ceramics and Rocks-Springer Netherlands (1990)
- Fracture Mechanic of Rubber
- Behavior of materials at cold region temperatures
- SIF
- dynamic crack toughness

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Brittle fracture

Fracture mechanics is used to formulate quantitatively

and arrest

dynamic/fatigue loading

susceptibility

of a structure to brittle failure.

1. Material Fracture Toughness. Material fracture toughness may be

defined as the ability to carry loads or deform plastically in the

presence of a notch. It may be described in terms of the critical

stress intensity factor, KIc, under a variety of conditions. (These

terms and conditions are fully discussed in the following chapters.)

2. Crack Size. Fractures initiate from discontinuities that can vary from

extremely small cracks to much larger weld or fatigue cracks.

Furthermore,

although good fabrication practice and inspection can minimize the

size and

number of cracks, most complex mechanical components cannot be

fabricated without discontinuities of one type or another.

3. Stress Level. For the most part, tensile stresses are necessary for

brittle

fracture to occur. These stresses are determined by a stress analysis

of the

particular component.

Repulsion

Potential Energy

together by cohesive energy or bond energy.

Two atoms (or sets of atoms) are said to be

fractured if the bonds between the two atoms

(or sets of atoms) are broken by externally

applied tensile load

Distance

Bond

Energy

Attraction

Equilibrium

Distance xo

Tension

Compression

Tdx

(2.1)

xo

Where x

is the equilibrium spacing

o

between two atoms.

Idealizing force-displacement relation as one

half of sine wave

T sin( )

C

Applied Force

two atoms, then bond or cohesive energy is

Bond

Energy

(2.2)

xo

Cohesive

Force

Distance

Assuming that the origin is defined at x o and for small

displacement relationship is assumed to be linear such

x

that sin( )

Hence force-displacement

relationship is given by

x

(2.2)

Potential Energy

TT

Repulsion

Distance

Bond

Energy

Attraction

T

C

Tension

(2.3)

as gage length and multiplying eq. 2.3 by n x o then k

becomes youngs modulus and TC beecomes cohesive

stress C such that

E

c

x o

Or

Bond

Energy

Applied Force

Equilibrium

Distance xo

Compression

xo

(2.4)

(2.5)

spacing

Cohesive

Force

Distance

The surface energy can be estimated as

sin

1

2

dx

(2.6)

Potential Energy

Repulsion

Distance

Bond

Energy

Attraction

Equilibrium

Distance xo

Tension

E

x

C

Bond

Energy

Applied Force

is

equal to one half the fracture energy

because two surfaces are created when a

material fractures. Using eq. 2.4 in to

eq.2.6

Compression

xo

(2.7)

Cohesive

Force

Distance

elliptical hole with major axis 2a and minor axis 2b,

subjected to far end stress The stress at the tip of

the major axis (point A) is given by

2a

A 1

b

(2.8)

concentration factor, k t

When a = b, it is a circular hole, thenk t 3.

When b is very very small, Inglis define radius of

curvature as

b2

(2.9)

a

And the tip stress as

a

A 1 a

(2.10)

2b

2a

When a >> b eq. 2.10 becomes

a

A 2

(2.11)

For a sharp crack, a >>> b, 0 and stress at the crack tip tends to

Assuming that for a metal, plastic deformation is zero and the sharpest

crack may have root radius as atomic spacing x o then the stress is

given by

a

(2.12)

A 2

xo

When far end stress reaches fracture stress f , crack propagates and

the stress at A reaches cohesive stress A C

then using eq. 2.7

E

f s

4a

1/ 2

This would

(2.13)

(1920)

Considered as father of Fracture

Mechanics

A A Griffith laid the foundations of modern fracture mechanics by

designing a criterion for fast fracture. He assumed that preexisting flaws propagate under the influence of an applied stress

only if the total energy of the system is thereby reduced. Thus,

Griffith's theory is not concerned with crack tip processes or the

micromechanisms by which a crack advances.

energy balance consisting of the decrease

in potential energy with in the stressed

body due to crack extension and this

decrease is balanced by increase in surface

energy due to increased crack surface

Griffith theory establishes theoretical strength of

brittle material and relationship between fracture

strength f and flaw size a

2a

per thickness is

2

(2.14)

U i dA

A 2E

On creating a crack of size 2a, the tensile force

on an element ds on elliptic hole is relaxed

from dx to zero. The elastic strain energy

released per unit width due to introduction of a

crack of length 2a is given by

a

where displacement

U a 4 12 dx v

0

a sin

u sin g x a cos

E

2a 2

(2.15)

Ua

E

B

2a

External work = U w Fdy,

(2.16)

=total relative displacement

U p =U i +U a -U w

2a

surface energy is

(2.17)

U = 4a s

2 2

P1

Load, P

plate is

2

2a 2

U t dA

Fdy 4a s

A 2E

a

Ua

E

P2

Crack begins

to grow from

length (a)

Crack is

longer by an

increment (da)

)

(a

)

da

+

(a

(2.18)

Displacement, v

2E s

f

Energy, U

The variation of U t with crack

extension should be minimum

=

2

U

dU t

2 a

y

erg

n

0

4 s 0

eE

ac

f

r

da

E

Su

4a

(a)

Crack

length, a

1/ 2

Total energy

(2.19)

for plane stress

Stable

Unstable

1/ 2

materials which fail in a completely

brittle elastic manner, e.g. glass,

mica, diamond and refractory

metals.

2a 2

E

Potential energy U

release rate G = a

(2.20)

for plane strain

Ua

Rates, G,

2E s

f

2

a(1 )

Elastic Strain

energy released

Syrface energy/unit

extension =

(b)

Crack

length, a

ac

(a) Variation of Energy with Crack length

(b) Variation of energy rates with crack length

Griffith extrapolated surface tension values of soda lime glass

from high temperature to obtain the value at room temperature as

s 0.54J / m 2 . Using value of E = 62GPa,The value of 2E as 0.15

From

the

experimental

study

on

spherical

vessels he

MPa m.

calculated a 2E as 0.25 0.28 MPa m.

1/ 2

1/ 2

theory, it is impossible to initiate brittle fracture unless preexisting defects are present, so that fracture is always considered

to be propagation- (rather than nucleation-) controlled; this is a

serious short-coming of the theory.

For more ductile materials (e.g. metals and plastics) it is found that

the functional form of the Griffith relationship is still obeyed, i.e.

f a1/ 2 . However, the proportionality constant can be used to

evaluate s (provided E is known) and if this is done, one finds the

value is many orders of magnitude higher than what is known to be

the true value of the surface energy (which can be determined by

other means). For these materials plastic deformation accompanies

crack propagation even though fracture is macroscopically brittle;

The released strain energy is then largely dissipated by producing

localized plastic flow at the crack tip. Irwin and Orowan modified

the Griffith theory and came out with an expression

2E( s p )

f

1/ 2

cleavage in metallic materials p=104 J/m2 and s=1 J/m2. Since p>>

s we have

1/ 2

2E p

f

The strain energy release rate usually referred to

G

dU

da

Note that the strain energy release rate is respect to crack length and

most definitely not time. Fracture occurs when reaches a critical

value which is denoted G c.

At fracture we have G G c so that

1/ 2

1 EG c

f

Y a

necessary to know E as well as G.c This can be a problem with some

materials, eg polymers and composites, where varies with

composition and processing. In practice, it is usually more

convenient to combine E andG c in a single fracture toughness K c

parameter K cwhere Kc2 EG. cThen can be simply determined

experimentally using procedures which are well established.

For LEFM the structure obeys Hookes law and global behavior is linear

and if any local small scale crack tip plasticity is ignored

The fundamental principle of fracture mechanics is that the stress field around a

crack tip being characterized by stress intensity factor K which is related to both

the stress and the size of the flaw. The analytic development of the stress

intensity factor is described for a number of common specimen and crack

geometries below.

The three modes of fracture

with respect to the plane occupied by the crack prior to the deformation

(results from normal stresses perpendicular to the crack plane);

Mode II - Sliding mode: where the crack surfaces glide over one another in

opposite directions but in the same plane (results from in-plane shear); and

Mode III - Tearing mode: where the crack surfaces are displaced in the

In the 1950s Irwin [7] and coworkers introduced the concept of stress

intensity factor, which defines the stress field around the crack tip, taking

into account crack length, applied stress and shape factor Y( which

accounts for finite size of the component and local geometric features).

The Airy stress function.

In stress analysis each point, x,y,z, of a stressed solid undergoes the

stresses; x y, z, xy, xz,yz. With reference to figure 2.3, when a body

is loaded and these loads are within the same plane, say the x-y plane,

two different loading conditions are possible:

thickness of the body is

comparable to the size of the

plastic zone and a free

contraction of lateral surfaces

occurs, and,

2. plane strain (PSN), when

the specimen is thick enough

to avoid contraction in the

thickness z-direction.

Thickness

B

Thickness

B

yy

Crack

Plane

X

a

Plane Stress

Plane Strain

three components; x, y, xy, since; z, xz, yz= 0, while, in

the latter case, a normal stress, z, is induced which

prevents the z

displacement, ez = w = 0. Hence, from Hooke's law:

z = (x+y)

where is Poisson's ratio.

For plane problems, the equilibrium conditions are:

y xy

x xy

0 ;

0

x

y

y

x

compatibility Conditions 0

4

2

2

2

x 2 , y 2 , xy

y

x

xy

Then

function as

Re[ Z] y Im[Z]

bg

Z z Re[ z] y Im[ z] ; z = x + iy

Then the stresses are given by

2

x 2 Re[Z] y Im[Z' ]

y

2

y 2 Re[Z] y Im[Z' ]

x

2

xy

y Im[Z' ]

xy

where Z' = dZ dz

s

State of stress. Defining:

Z

a2

Boundary Conditions :

At infinity | z | x y , xy 0

On crack faces

a x a; y 0 x xy 0

2a

s

By replacing z by z+a , origin shifted to crack tip.

b g

zb

z 2a g

za

KI

Z

2az

2 z

KI a

KI must be real and a constant at the crack tip. This is due to a

1

Singularity given by

z

stress intensity factor for opening

mode I.

Since origin is shifted to crack

tip, it is easier to use polar

Coordinates, Using

z ei

Further Simplification gives:

KI

3

cos 1 sin sin

2 r

2

2 2

KI

3

y

cos 1 sin sin

2 r

2

2 2

KI

3

xy

sin cos cos

2 r

2 2

2

KI

In general ij

f ij and K I Y a

2 r

where Y = configuration factor

x

u

2(1 )

r

1

KI

cos

sin 2

E

2

2 2

2

2(1 )

r

1

KI

sin

cos2

E

2 2 2

2

(3 4 ) for plane stress problems

3

for plane strain problems

1

given by

y

2

2

v

E

(1 2 )

v

E

v

2

work done by force acting on the crack face while relaxing the

stress to zero

1

U a Fv

2

(1 2 )

2

2

Ua 4

a x dx

Ua 4

E

E

0

0

2 a 2

2 a 2 (1 2 )

E

E

The strain energy release rate is given by G dU a da

a

2 a

GI =

E

K 2I

GI =

E

2 (1 2 )a

GI =

E

K 2I (1 2 )

GI =

E

x 2 dx

For problems with crack tip under shear loading, Airys stress

function is taken as

II y Re[Z]

0

2

x 2 2 Im[Z] y Re[Z' ]

y

2

y 2 y Re[Z' ]

x

2

xy

Re[Z] y Im[Z' ]

xy

Z

0 z

a2

2a

Boundary Conditions :

At infinity | z | x y 0, xy 0

On crack faces

a x a; y 0 x xy 0

With usual simplification would give the stresses as

x

K II

3

cos cos 2 cos cos

2 r

2 2

2

2

K II

3

cos sin cos

2 r

2 2

2

xy

K II

3

cos 1 sin sin

2 r

2

2 2

u

K II

E

(1 )sin 2 cos

2

2

K II

E

(1 )cos 2 cos

2

2

K II o a

K 2I

GI =

E

K 2I (1 2 )

GI =

E

for plane strain

In this case the crack is displaced along z-axis. Here

the displacements u and v are set to zero and hence

e x e y xy yx 0

w

w

and yz zy

x

y

the equilibrium equation is written as

xy yx

xz yz

0

x

y

Strain displacement relationship is given by

2 w 2 w

2

w0

2

2

x

y

if w is taken as

1

w Im[ Z]

G

Then

xy Im[Z]; yz Re[Z]

Z

0 z

a2

with the boundary conditions

on the crack face a x a; y 0 z yz xy 0

on the boundary x y , yz 0

K III

sin

2 r

2

K

yz III cos

2 r

2

x y xy 0

xz

K III 2r

w

sin

G

2

uv0

K III o a

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