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Virtual University of Pakistan

Data Warehousing
Lecture-2
Introduction and Background
Ahsan Abdullah
Assoc. Prof. & Head
Center for Agro-Informatics Research
www.nu.edu.pk/cairindex.asp
FAST National University of Computers & Emerging Sciences, Islamabad

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Introduction and Background

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Why a Data Warehouse (DWH)?


Data recording and storage is growing.

History is excellent predictor of the future.


Gives total view of the organization.
Intelligent decision-support is required for
decision-making.
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Reason-1: Why a Data Warehouse?


Data Sets are growing.
How Much Data is that?
1 MB

220 or 106 bytes

Small novel 31/2 Disk

1 GB

230 or 109 bytes

Paper rims that could fill the back of a


pickup van

1 TB

240 or 1012 bytes

50,000 trees chopped and converted


into paper and printed

2 PB

1 PB = 250 or 1015 bytes

Academic research libraries across


the U.S.

5 EB

1 EB = 260 or 1018 bytes

All words ever spoken by human


beings
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Reason-1: Why a Data Warehouse?


Size of Data Sets are going up .
Cost of data storage is coming down .
The amount of data average business collects
and stores is doubling every year
Total hardware and software cost to store and
manage 1 Mbyte of data
1990: ~ $15
2002: ~ 15 (Down 100 times)
By 2007: < 1 (Down 150 times)
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Reason-1: Why a Data Warehouse?


A Few Examples
WalMart: 24 TB
France Telecom: ~ 100 TB
CERN: Up to 20 PB by 2006
Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC):
500TB

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Caution!

A Warehouse of Data
is NOT a
Data Warehouse

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Caution!

Size
is NOT
Everything

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Reason-2: Why a Data Warehouse?

Businesses demand Intelligence (BI).


Complex questions from integrated data.
Intelligent Enterprise

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Reason-2: Why a Data Warehouse?


DBMS Approach
List of all items that were sold last
month?
List of all items purchased by Tariq
Majeed?
The total sales of the last month
grouped by branch?

How many sales transactions


occurred during the month of
January?
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Reason-2: Why a Data Warehouse?


Intelligent Enterprise
Which items sell together? Which
items to stock?
Where and how to place the items?
What discounts to offer?
How best to target customers to
increase sales at a branch?

Which customers are most likely to


respond to my next promotional
campaign, and why?
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Reason-3: Why a Data Warehouse?


Businesses want much more

What happened?
Stages of
Why it happened?
Data
Warehouse
What will happen?
What is happening?
What do you want to happen?
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What is a Data Warehouse?

A complete repository of historical


corporate data extracted from
transaction systems that is
available for ad-hoc access by
knowledge workers.
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What is a Data Warehouse?


Complete repository
History
Transaction System

Ad-Hoc access
Knowledge workers

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What is a Data Warehouse?


Transaction System
Management Information System (MIS)

Could be typed sheets (NOT transaction system)

Ad-Hoc access
Dose not have a certain access pattern.

Queries not known in advance.


Difficult to write SQL in advance.

Knowledge workers
Typically NOT IT literate (Executives, Analysts, Managers).
NOT clerical workers.
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Decision makers.
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Another View of a DWH


Subject
Oriented

Integrated

Time
Variant
Non
Volatile

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