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AUXILIARY
OPERATIONAL
SPECIALTY COURSE

Weather
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CREDIT FOR GRAPHICS


In addition to the original graphics in this CD,
thanks are due to the following Federal Agencies
for the limited use of their graphics, which are in
the public domain: DOT, FAA, USCG; DOC,
NOAA, NWS; DOD, USAF,USN. The author.

PRODUCTION CREDITS
This DISTANCE LEARNING COURSE has
been produced in cooperation with the office of
DIRAUX, USCG, 7th USCG District, Miami,
Florida, under the direct leadership of Douglas
Simpson, Supervisor and by William N. Seiler,
DVC-T(a) and Albert E. Rhea, BC-T(a),
DIRAUX ANNEX-WEST, USCG Auxiliary,
Venice, Fl.
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WELCOME TO THE
AUXILIARY OPERATIONAL
WEATHER COURSE

This PowerPoint presentation represents the entire


course, excluding the final examination.
The final is a proctored, closed-book exam based on

the study questions at the end of each chapter. Study


them closely.
Smooth sailing, light seas, clear skies.
ALL THE BEST FROM DIRAUX WEST!
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STUDENT NOTES

It is strongly suggested that you complete the

STUDY QUESTIONS at the end of each


chapter of the AUXOP Weather Text, or those
same questions at the end of each chapter of this
power-point presentation.

Your FINAL EXAM will be based on these

questions, along with others covering the


physical principles demonstrated in this course.
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CHAPTER 1
Our Atmosphere
1. Vertical Structure
2. Introduction To Temperature
3. Composition
4. Standard Atmosphere
5. Pressure & Density
6. Latitude & Longitude
7. Study Questions
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LAYERS OF THE
ATMOSPHERE

With respect to ACTIVE WEATHER, only TWO


atmospheric layers are addressed in this course.

TROPOSPHERE
STRATOSPHERE
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Vertical Structure of the


atmosphere
(for weather purposes)

Tropopause

DEFINITION OF WEATHER

Instead of defining the term, it is much better to


DESCRIBE what we refer to as weather, and
call it a definition.

WEATHER, therefore, will include every term


such as clouds, wind, precipitation, heating,
cooling, climate, etc., AND their combined
effects on our atmosphere, visible or not.
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TWO CONTROLLING
ELEMENTS OF ALL
WEATHER
1. TEMPERATURE
2. MOISTURE
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A WORKING DEFINITION
OF TEMPERATURE

Temperature is a measure of the efficiency

of the result of the relationship between HEAT


ENERGY and the VOLUME containing it.

It is something which we measure on an


instrument we call a thermometer.
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SPECIAL NOTE: the only element in our atmosphere, for


practical purposes, that can readily absorb free heat energy,
is WATER VAPOR, which is water in the gaseous state.

If there were NO water vapor in this air parcel, this

parcel of air would contain almost NO HEAT and if there


were almost no heat in it, it would have ALMOST NO
TEMPERATURE.

It works like this:


T=70

Air Parcel or bubble

XX

Free Heat

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TEMPERATUREHow it works
Internal T=85
3 pcs. Of FREE Heat xxx
New internal T might be 95
Same 3 pcs of free heat but much smaller
volume to heat up.

The efficiency of the relationship

85

xxx

95

Fig.A

Fig. B

xxx

has been

increased. Heat works better.

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General Atmospheric properties

Air is a gaseous mixture.

Free to move in all directions

It can be compressed and expanded.

Air has both MASS and WEIGHT.


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Composition of The Atmosphere


Air is a Mixture of several Gases

Oxygen --------21% by Volume


Nitrogen -------78% by Volume
Other Gases ---1% by Volume
WATERVAPOR varies from a minimum of from near
0% to about 5% by volume to a maximum of 100%.
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PROPERTIES of
The U.S. STANDARD Atmosphere
Surface is defined to be Mean Sea Level
Surface Temperature ---------- + 15 C ( +59 F )
Surface Pressure --- 29.92 hg (mercury)
or.. 14.7 lbs/in or 760mm Hg
Chemically DRY (No water vapor content)

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Pressure and Density

Atmospheric Pressure (barometric pressure ) is the


FORCE exerted on any surface, by the weight of the
column of air above it.
Both Pressure and Weight can be equated to this force.
Compression

Expansion

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Variation of Density

Less Dense Mixture

More Dense Mixture

FIG. A

FIG.B

Vol.=1 cm

Vol.=1 cm

= Dust, water vapor, etc

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LATITUDE & LONGITUDE


(Brief Treatise)
A TWO-COORDINATE grid system, consisting
of a North-South line (Longitude) and an EastWest line (Latitude), the intersection of which, is
used to describe a point of position, relative to the
surface of the earth.

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PARALLELS OF LATITUDE
North Pole
90 North

60 North
30 North

Equator

0
30 South
60 South

90 South

South Pole

Point A is Located at 30 North Latitude

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MERIDIANS OF LONGITUDE
North Pole

30N LAT

180w

EQUATOR
120w

90w

60w

South Pole

Point A is Located at 30 N Latitude - 90W Longitude


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REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Air at the earths surface is more _____
than at higher altitudes.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Thin
Cold
Dry
Dense
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REVIEW QUESTIONS
2. The _____ separates the troposphere and the
stratosphere.

a. Tropopause
b. Thermopause
c. Mesosphere
d. Ionosphere
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REVIEW QUESTIONS
3. Air is matter (mass) and has weight. Since it is a
gas it is_________.

a. incompressible
b. compressible
c. visible
d. not a mixture
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REVIEW QUESTIONS
4. Almost all weather occurs in the ______or the
lower reaches of the________.
a. troposphere/stratosphere
b. tropopause/ionosphere
c. stratosphere/ionosphere
d. mesosphere/thermosphere
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REVIEW QUESTIONS
5. The parallel circumscribing the greatest
distance is at______degrees latitude and is also
known as the________.
a. 30/Horse Latitudes
b. 90/Greenwich Meridian
c. 0/Equator
d. 60/Great Circle
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REVIEW QUESTIONS
6. One degree of latitude( on a mercator projection)
is approximately _____.
a. 60 statute miles
b. 60 linear miles
c. 60 nautical miles
d. 60 knots
End of study questions for chapter 1

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