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The process by which organisms

obtain energy and nutrients from
food, for growth, maintenance
and repair of damaged tissues.
Living organisms can be divided
into two main groups base on their
nutritional habits:

Can synthesis foods

Obtain energy
through the intake
and digestion of
organic substance

All living thing need food to live. Which are able to make food?





Hydrilla sp.






A Brief History of the Discovery of Photosynthesis

In conclusion, scientists have shown that plants:

Required ______________
(from the air) and
_________ (from the soil) to
synthesise food in the
presence of ___________

Synthesise carbohydrates
(____________) and release
during photosynthesis.

Carry out photosynthesis in the

green parts of plants which
contain __________________.

Physical structure of leaves

adapted for photosynthesis
Consists of a flat, thin lamina.
(flat: has a large surface to trap sunlight;

thin: light can penetrate)

The leaf of whole plant are arranged so that they
shade each other as little as possible ( the leaves
are in an optimal position for photosynthesis)

Leaf mosaic

The cross section of leaf

and adaptation of the
structure of a leaf for

Draw and label this structure on a piece of paper

The cross section of leaf and adaptation of the structure

of a leaf for photosynthesis
Coated with cuticle. Consist of ____________ layer.
Thin and transparent. Does not contain ____________.
A ________________ covering which protects the leaf.
_________________ to prevent excessive water loss.

Allows light to penetrate the leaf and reach the light

trapping chloroplast inside

_________________, allow light to enter the leaf

Are packed tightly together in an upright arrangement

near the upper surface of leaf.
Have high density of __________________________.

Consist of cell which have irregular ___________. (to

increase the internal surface area for ________________
Have ___________ chloroplasts than palisade cells.
The cells are ____________ arranged.
Forms the lower protective
boundary to the leaf. Does
not contain chloroplasts
except for guard cells which
are specialised.
Support photosynthesis by
allowing the exchange of
__________ between inside
of the leaf and its

The cell walls are coated with a firm of __________. The

moist surfaces allow gaseous exchange to take place
efficiently in the cells.

Consists of _______________ and _________________.

Enable the ___________ and
__________ of stomata.

______________ transports mineral ions and _________

to the leaf. _______________ transports the products of
photosynthesis away from the leaf.

Action or process of adjustment to

the environment condition

Plants from different habitats show a

variety of adaptations to carry out
photosynthesis optimally.

In order to photosynthesis efficiently,

plants need to have a method for
__________ and an efficient means
of absorbing ____________.

Form in groups of 6 and discuss about

the adaptation of plants from different
habitats to carry out photosynthesis
Land Plants
Floating Plants
Desert Plants

Aquatic Plants That Are Submerged