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ASAS KEUSAHAWANAN

MGM 3180

Kumpulan 2

ASAS KEUSAHAWANAN
MGM 3180
Kursus ini memberi pendedahan kepada pelajar
mengenai ilmu keusahawanan yang merangkumi kaedah
melaksanakan aktiviti keusahawanan dan kemahiran pengurusan asas
yang diperlukan untuk pengendalian perusahaan perniagaan.
SINOPSIS

menjelaskan ciri-ciri keusahawanan


menyediakan rancangan perniagaan
melaksanakan aktiviti perniagaan

Rangkakursus
BUKU TEKS:

Schaper, M & Volery, T. (2007). Entrepreneurship and Small Business. 2nd Pacific Rim Edition.
Australia: John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd.

********* chap 11&14will be tested in mid term test


Rudaini Sham Abdullah Jumain
A307
Fakulti Ekomomi dan Pengurusan

ASAS KEUSAHAWANAN
MGM 3180
PENILAIAN

Kerja Kursus
80%
Penilaian Akhir
20%
PEMBAHAGIAN PENILAIAN KURSUS SECARA TERPERINCI:
Percent
Cadangan perniagaan
10
Rancangan perniagaan
20
Ujian *
20
Perbentangan projek perniagaan
20
Laporan akhir
20
Tugasan berkumpulan
10
JUMLAH
100
* Bahan ujian meliputi Bab 11 & 15

ASAS KEUSAHAWANAN
MGM 3180

DEAD-LINES

All business proposals must be handed in by 7th August2009


BORANG CADANGAN PERNIAGAAN

Submission of Business Plan by 28th August 2009


Test 13th September 2009 (Sun)

Presentation of Business Report M12-M13


Submission of Business Reports 23rd October 2009

Guests speakers - 24th October 2009 (Saturday 8:30am-1:30pm)

ASAS KEUSAHAWANAN MGM 3180


Permakahan untuk Rancangan Perniagaan
Peratus
Ringkasan eksekutif
Latarbelakang mengenai produk/perkhidmatan yang dipilih
Aspek pentadbiran & pengurusan perniagaan
Tapak/lokasi perniagaan
Tanggungjawab pengurusan/pentadbiran masing-masing
Jadual perlaksanaan aktiviti perniagaan (Gantt chart dan
Jadual yang lebih terperinci lebih baik)
Aspek pembelian barangan bagi business pembarangan/aspek
operasi pengeluaran bagi business pembuatan
Aspek pemasaran
Aspek kewangan Format
JUMLAH

10
10
10
10
5

20
10
15
10
100

Defining entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship as a term was first used during the

Industrial Revolution.
It described the new phenomenon of the individual
who formulated a venture idea, developed it,
assembled resources and created a new business
venture.
Entrepreneurship:

The process brought about by individuals of


identifying new opportunities and converting them
into marketable products or services.

Entrepreneurial activity
Entrepreneurial activity is a function of the degree to

which people recognise the opportunities available


and that they have the capacity to exploit.
At a broader level, there is a relationship between
national conditions and the performance of
established firms.

The key elements of entrepreneurship

There are five generally agreed


conditions that are necessary
for entrepreneurship to occur:
1)
an individual (the
entrepreneur)
2) a market opportunity
3) adequate resources
4) a business organisation
5) a favourable environment

The entrepreneur is

responsible for
bringing these
contingencies
together to create new
value

Entrepreneurial opportunities:

Those situations in which new products, services and processes


can be introduced and sold at greater than their cost of
production.

The discovery and evaluation of


entrepreneurial opportunities
Opportunities rarely present themselves in neat

packages; they have to be discovered and shaped.


Differences between people matter regarding the
discovery and exploitation of opportunities.
4 main differences have to be considered:
psychological characteristics
information and knowledge availability
creative processing
cognitive heuristics - strategies using readily accessible,
information to control problem-solving

Understanding the profile of an entrepreneur


Two basic schools of thought shape the profile of the
entrepreneur:
economists who consider the entrepreneur as an agent who
specialises in certain roles. - From the economist point of view,
entrepreneurship is considered as a function.
behaviourists who concentrate on the creative and intuitive
character - The status of the entrepreneur can be analysed in
terms of labour division which explains this function based on
certain roles:
risk bearer
Arbitrageur (taking advantage of a price differential
between two or more markets)
innovator
co-ordinator of scarce resources

The characteristics of an entrepreneur (behaviourist)


Early studies in entrepreneurship typically

focused on the psychological characteristics


and the personality of the individual as
determinants of behaviour.
Only 3 of the endless list of entrepreneurial
traits have shown a high level of validity:
the need for achievement

the internal locus of control


the risk-taking propensity

Individuals and opportunities


The entrepreneur is the central actor in the creation of a new

venture.
Initially, an opportunity is generally recognised by a single
individual, who may decide to pursue it alone or with others.
In turn, this entrepreneurial project exists only because there is
an individual who has identified this opportunity and is pursuing
it.
Individuals are influenced by opportunity costs, individual risk
perception, optimism, tolerance for ambiguity and need for
achievement.

Triggers and barriers to start-ups


Triggers
Material rewards:
make more money; keep the proceeds of the business; reward according to effort
Creativity:
use my own talents; a desire to create something; control from begin to end; passion

about what I am doing


Desire for autonomy:
be my own boss; work my own hours; work with people I like, at a location of my choice

Barriers
Lack of resources:
weak management and marketing skills; lack of information on start-ups; lack of
finance
Compliance costs:
high taxes and costs associated with compliance to government legislation
Hard reality:
setting up a venture is harder than initially expected; uncertainty; fear of failure

The risks of a career in entrepreneurship


There are 4 types of risks to consider before embracing a career in
entrepreneurship:
financial risks
Large amounts of own money have to be invested.
After start-up most of the profits are usually reinvested.
Borrowing funds from bankers, venture capitalists, or partners can
reduce financial risks.
career risks
Questions about (re-)employment after an eventual failure must be
considered.
social risks
Starting a business venture requires much of the entrepreneurs energy
and time. - The decision to set up a venture should therefore involve the
family to reduce conflict potential.
health risks
There is evidence that entrepreneurs experience higher job stress and
psychosomatic health problems than other people.