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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Computer


Networks for Manufacturing

CHAPTER 4:
4.1 Hierarchy of Computers in Manufacturing
4.2 Communication Standards
4.3 Manufacturing Automation Protocol

RJ, CIM JULY 2009

Hierarachy of Computers in
Manufacturing
Fourth level
Third level
Second level
First level
Operations

RJ, CIM JULY 2009

COMMUNICATION
STANDARDS

In a manufacturing cell, machines


&equipment are all bought from different
vendors different microprocessors &
computers.
This create islands of automation where
communication cannot be done beyond that
cell. Hence, a standard communication is
required.
RJ, CIM JULY 2009

COMMUNICATION
STANDARDS

ISO/OSI (Open System Interconnection) reference model.


The OSI model defines internetworking in terms of a vertical stack of
seven layers. The upper layers of the OSI model represent software
that implements network services like encryption and connection
management. The lower layers of the OSI model implement more
primitive, hardware-oriented functions like routing, addressing, and
flow control.
In the OSI model, data communication starts with the top layer at the
sending side, travels down the OSI model stack to the bottom layer,
then traverses the network connection to the bottom layer on the
receiving side, and up its OSI model stack.

RJ, CIM JULY 2009

ISO/OSI REFERENCE MODEL

Refer to OSI & MAP notes.

Each layer has a special task:


Mechanical & electronic means of data transmission.
Error detection & correction.
Correct transmission of the message.
Control of the dialog between users.
Translation of the message into a common syntax.
Verification that the data transferred has been
understood.
RJ, CIM JULY 2009

ISO/OSI REFERENCE MODEL

Each message or data from User A has to be


transmitted to User B from Layer 7 to Layer 1 (A
end) and more information is picked up as it
travels through each layers. The complete packet
is transmitted through the physical
communications medium to User B and then
moves through the layers from 1 to 7 (B end).
Transmission takes place through co-axial cable,
fiber-optic cable, microwaves, etc.
RJ, CIM JULY 2009

Manufacturing Automation
Protocol (MAP)

A set of protocol standards designed for use in a


factory.
Bus network configuration, broadband
transmission, token-passing access scheme, data
transmission rate of 10 megabits per second.
Technical Office Protocol (TOP) for Office
automation.
MAP / TOP established for the factory level
and offices in all levels of an organization.
RJ, CIM JULY 2009

Artificial Intelligence

To simulate human behaviors on


computers.
AI can exhibit learning, reasoning, problem
solving, understand language, etc.

Expert system
Artificial neural networks
Fuzzy logic

RJ, CIM JULY 2009