You are on page 1of 38

Communication Barriers

Chapter 5

Barriers to Communication

Communication Cycle and


Barriers
Written
E.g.
Letter
Information

NonVerbal
E.g.
Gestures

Oral
E.g.
Meeting

Phone rings

attitudes

language

NOISE

Encoding
Sender

Message

Decoding
Medium / Channel

Message

assumptions

Receiver

People talking

emotions

Feedback
Positive

Negative

Barriers to Communication

Barriers
from
Sender
and
Receiver

2
Barriers
from
outside
influences

Barriers by Sender and Receiver


1 - Distortion

Distort : Twist out of shape

Intended Message
Misunderstanding or partial understanding of message

Distortion by sender
Encoding
Sender

Message

Medium / Channel

Message is not clear


Basic Speak and write clearly
Be specific and give details

Use of jargons
Understand audience

Information overload
Too much information at once. Communicate key points.

Distortion by Receiver
Decoding
Medium / Channel

Message

Receiver

Poor reading skills


Read two or three times until you are certain that the
message is fully understood

Poor listening skills


Listen actively and always ask for clarification

Barriers by Sender and Receiver


2 Inadequate Communication Skills
What are communication skills?
Send and receive message clearly and effectively
Analyze audience and purpose and use language
most suitable
Interpret signs and symbols read behavior of
other people

Inadequate Communication Skills

Incorrect Information
Sender gives wrong data
Inadequate
Communication
Skills of the
SENDER

Incomplete Information
Partial message passed

Inappropriate Language
Language or vocabulary that receiver
does not understand

Inappropriate medium/channel
Letter to pass urgent information.
Conversation to pass complex info.

Inadequate Communication Skills


Principles of Communication / 7 Cs

Clear
Concise
Correct
Courteous
Complete
Consistent
Convincing

Barriers by Sender and Receiver


3 Faulty Equipment
Sender and receiver has to make sure that all
equipment are functioning properly
Mobile phone runs out of power
Fax machine runs out of paper

How can we avoid this barrier?


Check and maintain equipment regularly

Barriers by Sender and Receiver


4 Wrong Time or Wrong Place
Sender initiates the message time and place decided
by sender
Wrong time
Lunch time / End of working day receiver busy with
other thoughts. Telephone call in different time zones
Put message in written form

Wrong place
Noisy , outside work, corridor, canteen receiver not
focused on message
Setup an appointment

Barriers by Sender and Receiver


5 Insufficient Adjustment Period
Sender has not given receiver enough time to think
about the message
Without enough time to think, receiver is more likely
to make mistakes
Give reasonable time for receiver to clarify doubts
before giving deadline.

Barriers by Sender and Receiver


6 Physical Barrier

Computer screen, stacks of paper, desk


Distance

Barriers by Sender and Receiver


7 Psychological Noise
Internal noise personal feelings and attitudes

Perceptual bias
Unclarified assumptions
Stereotyping
Prejudice

Bias
tendency to lean towards one side or the other.
Not neutral - Typically unfair
Subjective vs Objective: Personal opinions and feelings
vs facts

Perceptual Bias
Perceptual Filter
Values
Preferences

Attitudes
Life Experiences

Perceptual Bias
Bias based on our perception of the world
Selective Hearing filtering what we hear to suit our
own needs
We make assumptions about the way things are based
on our past experience
Tune out Ignore unfavorable messages

Results in wrong message being heard

Unclarified Assumptions
Unclarified not clarified or understood
Assumption accept as truth without proof
Unclarified Assumption Believe something to be
true without checking or trying to understand the
truth
E.g. Manager comes with stern look, you immediately
assume something is wrong

Unclarified Assumption
This is Mark. Can you guess what his occupation is?
A . Surfer
B. HR Specialist
C. Nurse
D. Full time student

This is Joe. Do you think he has a college degree?


A . Bachelors Degree
B. Phd
C. High School
D. Did not graduate

Stereotyping
A type of unclarified assumption.
An attitude towards other people that implies all
people of that type behave the same way.
Generalized
Men are
Girls are
Chinese are
Americans are .

Stereotyping
Fairness

Lovely
Handsome
Confident
Educated
High class

Prejudice
Most extreme and most unacceptable
Stereotyping is generalizing a group of people but
can be positive or negative
Prejudice is a strong dislike for a person because s(he)
is different
Race or tribe
Gender
Age

Religious belief
Personal appearance
Rank

Prejudice
Cannot pay attention to message because you are
more emotionally involved in dealing with your
prejudice against the other person

Psychological noise and Business


Communication
Ideas and thoughts are forming in your mind that
which you find more relevant than the
communication itself
Hinders listening and feedback

Be aware of these factors


have an open mind before you start
communicating
focus on the message rather than the messenger

Barriers from outside influences


Physical noise features of your surrounding

Noise
What medium of communication is noise most likely
to affect?
Oral Communication

How does noise affect communication?


Distracts people who are talking
Difficult to hear each other

Noise
How can you overcome physical barriers or noise?
If noise is coming from outside
Close the door or window

If your colleagues are talking


Ask politely to be quieter

Move to another quieter place to work

Overcome Barriers to
Communication
Define the Purpose
Know Where and
How to Communicate
Understanding the
receiver
Personal
Communication Skills

Define the Purpose

What are you trying to achieve?


Are you trying to change someones attitude?
Are you trying to find out someones opinion?
Are you asking for advice?
Are you ordering goods?
What do you want the receiver to do once s(he)
receives the message?
Identify the purpose Clearly and exactly and make
sure you achieve that purpose
Know what not to say cut out material

Know When and How to


Communicate
The Right Person
What will happen if you write a job application letter to
the marketing manager of a company?
Waste time for both of you
You give the impression that you are inefficient and
careless

Know When and How to


Communicate
The Right Moment
Try to find the time where recipient is in a good mood
Attitude of recipient
Try to find a time where external interruptions are
minimal external noise
What is the best time to send a letter?
Letter arrives on the last day of the week manager is in a
good mood because weekend is coming

What is the best time to talk about a pay rise?


During appraisal interviews

What is the best time to send an e-mail?


http://blog.getresponse.com/best-time-to-send-emailinfographic.html

Know When and How to


Communicate
The Right Way
What is the best medium and channel for a particular
situation and recipient?
Phone call or personal visit?
Is it urgent?
Is it formal or informal?

The Right Way


Company wants to share news of an upcoming event
E-mail followed by brochures

Company wants to share its values and policies


Meeting with written document to follow

Financial Information
Report with details followed by presentation for
summary

Praise an employee for good performance


Mention in group meeting followed by one to one
meeting
Can give a certificate

Understanding the Receiver


Know your target audience
What happens if you ignore the needs of the
audience?
DISTORTION the message you intended to send is not
the message received by the recipient

Study the background, vocabulary and attitudes of


the recipient
Avoid prejudice, bias and unsuitable language
Avoid jargon

Understanding the Receiver


Avoid ambiguity
Put yourself in the place of the recipient
How would you respond?

Try to establish a good relationship with the receiver


Builds trust
Trust is needed for effective communication
Same mental picture

Personal Communication Skills


Improve your communication skills to overcome
communication barriers
Improve speaking and writing skills to make sure your
meaning is expressed directly and without ambiguity
Learn to speak in both formal and informal situations
Improve reading skills needed to understand
information and help build vocabulary
Improve listening skills make speaker know you are
sympathetic and aware

Questions