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By: Jeffrey Bivin

Lake Zurich High School

jeff.bivin@lz95.org

Last
March 11, 2008
Jeff Updated:
Bivin -- LZHS

Ellipse
The set of all co-planar points whose sum
of the distances from two fixed points (foci)
are constant.

Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

Ellipse
The set of all points whose sum of the
distances from two fixed points (foci) are
constant.

Look at an animation

Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

Ellipse
Definition of major and minor axis

Ellipse

Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

Ellipse
Definition of vertices
and co-vertices

endpoint of
major axis
endpoint of
minor axis
Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

Ellipse

a2 = b2 + c2
Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

Ellipse
( x h) 2
( y k)2

1
2
2
a
b

a2 = b2 + c2
Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

Ellipse
( x h)
( y k)

1
2
2
b
a
2

a2 = b2 + c2

Ellipse
( x h)
( y k)

1
2
2
a
b
2

The Latus Rectum

(LR) is a chord
passing through the
focus that is
perpendicular to the
major axis.
The length
of the L.R. is

2b
a

( x 2) 2
( y 3) 2

1
25
9

Center: (2, -3)

a = 5 in x direction
b = 3 in y direction

( x 2) 2
( y 3) 2

1
25
9

a=5

b=3

a2 = b2 + c2
52 = 32 + c2
25 = 9 + c2
16 = c2
4=c

( x 2) 2
( y 3) 2

1
25
9

a=5 b=3 c=4

Find the Length of the LR.

2b 2
LR
a

23
LR
5
18
LR
5

( x 2) 2
( y 3) 2

1
25
9

Center: (2, -3)

Major Axis: length = 10 endpoints (-3, -3) & (7, -3)
Minor Axis: length = 6 endpoints (2, 0) & (2, -6)
Foci: (-2, -3) (6, -3)
Length of LR: 18
5

Graph the following Ellipse

( x 1) 2
( y 5) 2

1
16
49

x+1=0
x = -1

y-5=0
y=5

Center: (-1, 5)
a = 7 in y direction

b = 4 in x direction

( x 1) 2
( y 5) 2

1
16
49

a=7

b=4

( 1, 5 33 )

33
33

(1, 5 33 )

a2 = b2 + c2
72 = 42 + c2
49 = 16 + c2
33 = c2
33 c

Graph the following Ellipse

( x 1) 2
( y 5) 2

1
16
49

a=7

b=4

c=

33

Find the
Length of
the LR.
2b 2
LR
a

24
LR
7
32
LR
7
Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

( x 1) 2
( y 5) 2

1
16
49
Center: (-1, 5)

( 1, 5 33 )

Major Axis: length = 14

endpoints (-1, -2) & (1, 12)
Minor Axis: length = 8
endpoints (-5, 5) & (3, 5)

(1, 5 33 )
Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

Foci: ( 1, 5 33 )

32
Length of LR:
7

Graph the following Ellipse

4x2 + 8x + 9y2 + 54y + 52 = 3
(4x2 + 8x ) + (9y2 + 54y ) = 3 - 52
4(x2 + 2x + 12) + 9(y2 + 6y + 32) = -49 + 4 + 81
4(x + 1)2 + 9(y + 3)2 = 36
4( x 1) 2
9( y 3) 2

1
36
36
( x 1) 2
( y 3) 2

1
9
4
Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

( x 1) 2
( y 3) 2

1
9
4

Center: (-1, -3)

a = 3 in x direction
b = 2 in y direction

Graph the following Ellipse

( x 1) 2
( y 3) 2

1
9
4

a=3

b=2

a2 = b2 + c2
32 = 22 + c2
9 = 4 + c2
5 = c2
5 c

( 1 5 , 3)

( 1 5 , 3)

5
Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

( x 1) 2
( y 3) 2

1
9
4

a=3

b=2

c=

2b 2
LR
a

22
LR
3
8
LR
3

( x 1) 2
( y 3) 2

1
9
4

Center: (-1, -3)

Major Axis: length = 6 endpoints (-4, -3) & (2, -3)
Minor Axis: length = 4 endpoints (-1, -1) & (-1, -5)
Foci: ( 1 5 , 3)
Length of LR: 8

( 1 5 , 3)

( 1 5 , 3)

Graph the following Ellipse

9x2 + 36x + 4y2 - 40y - 100 = 88
(9x2 + 36x ) + (4y2 - 40y ) = 88 + 100
9(x2 + 4x + 22) + 4(y2 - 10y + (-5)2) = 188 + 36 + 100

9(x + 2)2 + 4(y - 5)2 = 324

9( x 2) 2
4( y 5) 2

1
324
324
( x 2) 2
( y 5) 2

1
36
81
Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

Graph the following Ellipse

( x 2) 2
( y 5) 2

1
36
81

Center: (-2, 5)
a = 9 in y direction
b = 6 in x direction

Graph the following Ellipse

( x 2) 2
( y 5) 2

1
36
81

a=9

b=6

( 2, 5 3 5 )
3 5

3 5

( 2, 5 3 5 )
Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

a2 = b2 + c2
92 = 62 + c2
81 = 36 + c2
45 = c2
3 5 c

Graph the following Ellipse

( x 2) 2
( y 5) 2

1
36
81

a=9

b=6

c= 3 5

Find the
Length of
the LR.
2b 2
LR
a

26
LR
9

LR 8
Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

( x 2) 2
( y 5) 2

1
36
81
Center: (-2, 5)

(2, 5 3 5 )

Major Axis: length = 18

endpoints (-2, 14) & (-2, -4)
Minor Axis: length = 12
endpoints (-8, 5) & (4, 5)
Foci: (2, 5 3 5 )

(2, 5 3 5 )
Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

Length of LR:

Graph the following Ellipse

4x2 - 32x + 25y2 - 150y + 189 = 0
(4x2 8x ) + (25y2 - 150y ) = 0 - 189
4(x2 - 8x + (-4)2) + 25(y2 - 6y + (-3)2) = -189 + 64 + 225

4(x - 4)2 + 25(y - 3)2 = 100

4( x 4) 2
25 ( y 3) 2

1
100
100
( x 4) 2
( y 3) 2

1
25
4
Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

Graph the following Ellipse

( x 4) 2
( y 3) 2

1
25
4

Center: (4, 3)
a = 5 in x direction
b = 2 in y direction

Graph the following Ellipse

( x 4) 2
( y 3) 2

1
25
4

a=5

b=2

a2 = b2 + c2
52 = 22 + c2
25 = 4 + c2
21 = c2

21 c

( 4 21 , 3)

( 4 21 , 3)

5
Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

( x 4) 2
( y 3) 2

1
25
4

a=5

b=2

c=

21

2b 2
LR
a

22
LR
5
8
LR
5

Graph the following Ellipse

( x 4) 2
( y 3) 2

1
25
4
Center: (4, 3)
Major Axis: length = 10 endpoints (-1, 3) & (9, 3)
Minor Axis: length = 4 endpoints (4, 5) & (4, 1)
Foci: ( 4 21 , 3)
Length of LR: 8
5

( 4 21 , 3)

( 4 21 , 3)

5
Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

Graph the following Ellipse

7x2 + 28x + 5y2 - 2y + 15 = 17
(7x2 + 28x ) + (5y2 - 2y ) = 17 - 15
7(x2 + 4x + 22) + 5(y2 - 2y + (-1)2) = 2 + 28 + 5
7(x + 2)2 + 5(y - 1)2 = 35
7( x 2) 2
5( y 1) 2

1
35
35
( x 1) 2
( x 2) 2

1
5
7
Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

( x 1) 2
( x 2) 2

1
5
7

Center: (1, -2)

a = 7 in y direction
b = 5 in x direction

1, 2 7
7

5, 2

5
7

1, 2 7

5 , 2

Graph the following Ellipse

( x 1) 2
( x 2) 2

1
7
5

a= 7 b= 5

1, 2 2
7

5, 2

1
5

1, 2 27
Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

1, 2 7

7 5 c
2

1, 2 7
2

a2 = b2 + c2

5 , 2

75c
2 c2
2 c

( x 1) 2
( x 2) 2

1
7
5

a 5

2b 2
LR
a

1, 2 7

5, 2

5
7

Length of
the LR.

1, 2 7

5 , 2

2 7
LR
5

14 5
LR
5

( x 1) 2
( x 2) 2

1
7
5

1, 2 7

Major Axis: length = 2 7

endpoints (1, 2 7 )

5, 2

7
Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

1, 2 7

Minor Axis: length = 2 5

1 5 , 2 endpoints (1 5 , 2)
Foci: (1, 2 2 )
Length of LR: 14 5
5

Elliptical Billiard table

http://cage.ugent.be/~hs/billiards/billiards.html

http://www.cut-the-knot.org/Curriculum/Geometry/EnvelopesInEllipse.shtml