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System of Wiring

State electricity board provide electric supply up

to a point outside the consumer premises. From
this point consumer take the connection to his
main board. Insulated electrical wires will be
taken out to various places in the premises to
supply power to different type of loads like
lights, fans, refrigerators, room coolers, heaters,

Various type of Wiring:1.Cleat Wiring.

2.Wood casting Wiring.
3.Batten Wiring.
4.Conduit Wiring.

Cleat Wiring:-cleat are made by porcelain and

fixed on wall or ceiling at interval of 0.6 m. The
cable is taken through the holes of each cleat.
such a wiring is cheap & use in temporary
Wood casting Wiring:-In this Wiring the cable is
run through a Wood casting having grooves. The
cable are placed in side the grooves of the
casting. A capping also made of wood with
grooves , is used to cover the cables . The casting
and capping are made from well-seasoned teak
wood. Wood casting Wiring system are use in dry
place like Rajasthan.

Batten Wiring:-In Batten Wiring insulated wires

are run on wooden battens.PVC wires are run on
well-seasoned straight teak wood battens. Batten
Wiring is cheap & takes comparatively less time
to install.
Conduit Wiring:-Conduit Wiring consists of PVC
wires taken through either steel conduit pipes or
through PVC conduit pipes. Conduit are over the
surface of wall and ceiling . when Conduit are run
over the surface of wall ,the wiring is called as
surface Conduit Wiring . when Conduit are run
inside wall, the wiring is called as concealed
Conduit Wiring. Conduit Wiring is water proof &
replacement of defective wire is very easy.

Safety precaution in using Electricity:1.Every circuit should be given supply through a

switch-fire arrangement
2.The phase provided should be of proper rating.
3.No connection should be taken directly using
naked wire.
4.All metallic parts of electrical equipment
should be earthed.

Circuit protective device and safety

precaution: Circuit should be protected against any
abnormal condition like overload or short
circuit which may be due to any fault
condition or excess load connected to the
circuit. protective device like fuses, circuit
breakers are used , which help protect the
circuit from burning under abnormal

A fuse is a short piece of metal , inserted in
the circuit ,which melts when excessive
current flows through it and thus break the

Desirable characteristics of fuse


Type of fuses
1.Low voltage fuse:a. semi-closed rewirable type.
b.High rupturing capacity(H.R.C) cartridge type.

2.High voltage fuse.

Circuit Breakers
A circuit breaker will break the circuit
automatically under any fault conditions. Circuit
breaker can be operated by remote control with
the help of relay .Relay detect the fault and
initiate tripping of the circuit breaker. under
fault conditions the electrical quantities like
current, voltage and frequency become
abnormal and is sensed by the relay.

Classification of Circuit Breaker:1.Oil Circuit Breaker.

2.Air-blast Circuit Breaker
3.Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6) Circuit Breaker.
4.Vacuum Circuit Breaker.

Efficient use of Electricity:1. Lighting, heating, cooling and other domestic

electrical appliances used in home.
2. Street lighting, flood lighting of sporting arena,
office building lighting, powering PCs etc.
3. Irrigating vast agricultural lands using pumps and
operating cold storages for various agricultural
4. Running motors, furnaces of various kinds, in
5. Running locomotives (electric trains) of railways.

Purpose of Earthing
To save human life from danger of electrical shock or death by
blowing a fuse i.e. To provide an alternative path for the fault
current to flow so that it will not endanger the user
To protect buildings, machinery & appliances under fault
conditions ie. To ensure that all exposed conductive parts do
not reach a dangerous potential.
To provide safe path to dissipate lightning and short circuit
To provide stable platform for operation of
sensitive electronic equipments i.e. To maintain the voltage
at any part of an electrical system at a known value so as to
prevent over current or excessive voltage on the appliances or
equipment .
To provide protection against static electricity from friction