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Training Module for 3 G (WCDMA)

Day :1
WCDMA principle and overview.

WCDMA Radio Interface Physical Layer


Day :2
WCDMA Handover Principle
WCDMA Power Control Principle
WCDMA RF Optimization Basic

DAY - 1

WCDMA Principles

Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 2 WCDMA Network Structure
Chapter 3 WCDMA Technologies

Chapter 4 WCDMA RNC Area

Mobile Network Evolution


1G
Analogue

2G
Digital

2.5G
Packet Data

WCDMA

EDGE

GSM
GPRS
NMT

TDMA

2.75G
Enhanced Data

2M, 14M

384K

115K

TD-SCDMA
2M

TACS
PDC

cdma2000
1X EV-DO

AMPS
CDMA

CDMA 1X

2.4M

144K
1982-1996+

1992-2002+

2001+

2004+

2002-2004+

Target of IMT2000
Global uniform frequency band and standard, global seamless coverage

High efficient spectrum utility


High quality of service, high security
Easy for evolution from 2G system
Providing multimedia service

Car speed environment: 144kbps

Walk speed environment: 384kbps

Indoor environment: 2048kbps

WCDMA FDD
WCDMA FDD
Multiple access method

DS-CDMA

Duplex Method

Frequency Division

Frequency Band

Uplink : 1920-1980MHz, Downlink : 2110-2170MHz

Base Station Synchronization

Asynchronous/Synchronous operation

Chip Rate

3.84Mcps

Frame Length

10ms

Service multiplexing

Multiple Services with different QoS are multiplexed on a single


connection

Multi-user detection, smart antennas

Supported by standard, optional in implementation

Power Control

Fast Power Control, 1.5KHz

Handover

Softer, Soft & Hard Handover

Transmit Diversity

Open & Closed Loop

Voice Coding

AMR Voice Coding, rate 4.75kb 12.2kbps

WCDMA Voice Evolution


Adopt AMR voice coding, and support voice quality of 4.75Kbps ~
12.2Kbps
Adopt soft handover and transmit diversity to improve system
capacity
Provide high fidelity voice mode
Fast power control

Data Service Evolution of


WCDMA
Support maximum 2Mbps data service

Support packet switch


Adopt ATM platform currently
Provide QoS
Common Packet Channel(CPCH) and Downlink Share Channel(DSCH)
can support Internet packet services better

Provide high-quality support for uplink-downlink symmetric data service,


such as voice, video phone, conference TV

Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 2 WCDMA Network Structure
Chapter 3 WCDMA Technologies

Chapter 4 WCDMA RNC Area

WCDMA Network Structure


CS domain
MSC/VLR

GSM /GPRS BSS

BSC

PSTN/other PLMN

GMSC

A
HLR/AUC

BTS
PCU

SCE

Gb
SS7

SMS
SCP
RNC
NodeB

Iu-CS
Iu-PS

Internet,
Intranet

PS backbone

SGSN
GGSN

UTRAN

CG

PS domain

BG
Other PLMN

WCDMA Interfaces
MSC

MSC

SGSN

Iu-CS

A Interface

Iu-PS

Gb

BSC
BSS

SGSN

A-bis

RNC
UTRAN

Um

GSM

NodeB

NodeB
Uu

Uu

UE

RNC
Iub

Iub

BTS

Iur

UE

UE

WCDMA

Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 2 WCDMA Network Structure
Chapter 3 WCDMA Technologies

Chapter 4 WCDMA RNC Area

Chapter 3 WCDMA Technologies

Section 1
- Correlation Function
- OVSF and PN code
- Information Spreading & Recovery
- Rake Receiver
Section 2
- WCDMA Transmission Block Diagram
Section 3
- Power Control
- Handover
- Diversity

Correlation Function

Correlation is a measure of similarity between any two arbitrary signals.


EXAMPLE:
+1
0
-1
+1
0
-1

-1 1 -1 1
-1 1 -1 1
1 1 1 1
1 correlation
Identical signals

+1
0
-1

-1 1 -1 1
11 11
-1 1 -1 1
Zero correlation
Orthogonal signals

+1
0
-1

Orthogonal Function

Orthogonal functions have zero correlation. Two binary sequences are orthogonal if their XOR
output contains equal number of 1s and 0s

EXAMPLE:
0000

1010

0101

0101

0101

1111

OVSF & Walsh Code


Cch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1)
Cch,2,0 = (1,1)
Cch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1)
Cch,1,0 = (1)
Cch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1)
Cch,2,1 = (1,-1)
Cch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1)
SF = 1

SF = 2

SF = 4

SF and Service Rate


Symbol Rate*SF=Chip Rate

In WCDMA system, if chip rate=3.84MHz, SF=4, then symbol


rate=960Kbps;
Symbol Rate=(Service Rate + Checking Code)*Channel Coding Rate*
Repeat or Puncture Rate

In WCDMA system, if service rate=384Kbps, channel coding=1/3 Turbo


coding, then symbol rate=960Kbps;

Scrambling Code
Scrambling codes

GOLD sequence.
Uplink scrambling codes

Uplink scrambling codes are used to distinguish different UEs


Downlink scrambling codes

For downlink physical channels, a total of 218-1 = 262,143 scrambling codes


can be generated.

Only scrambling codes k = 0, 1, , 8191 are used.

8192 codes are divided into 512 groups, each of which contains 16 scrambling
codes.

The first scrambling code of each group is called primary scrambling code
(PSC), and the other 15 ones are secondary scrambling codes (SSC).

OVSF and PN Code Usage


OVSF Code
Usage

PN Code

Uplink : Separate physical data


(DPDCH) & control channels
(DPCCH) from the same
terminal
Downlink : Separate downlink
connections to different UEs
within the cell

Uplink : Separation of UEs

Length

Uplink : 4 256 chips


Downlink : 4 512 chips

Uplink/Downlink :
10ms = 38400 chips

Number of codes

Number of codes under one


scrambling factor = spreading
factor

Uplink : Several Million


Downlink : 512

Code Family

Orthogonal Variable Spreading


Factor (OVSF)

Gold code

Bandwidth

Spreading increase transmission


bandwidth

No change in transmission
bandwidth

Downlink : Separation of cells

Information spreading over


orthogonal codes
+1
-1
User Input
Orthogonal
Sequence
Tx Data
+1
-1

0110

0110

0110

0110

0110

1001

0110

0110

1001

1001

Information recovery
Rx Data

1001
Correct Function 0110
1111
1

0110
0110
0000

0110
0110
0000

1001
0110
1111
1

1001
0110
1111
1

+1
-1

Rx Data

Incorrect Function

1001
0101
1100

0110
0101
0011

0110
0101
0011

1001
0101
1100
?

1001
0101
1100
?

Spreading and De-spreading


The improvement of time-domain information rate means that the bandwidth of spectrum-domain
information is spread.
Sf

Sf
information
information

f0
f
The spectrum before spreading
Sf

f0
f
The spectrum after spreading
Sf

information

Interference/noise

Interference/noise

information
f0
f
The spectrum before despreading
information

f0

The spectrum after despreading

pulse interference

White noise

Principle of RAKE Receiver


Correlator 1

Correlator 2

Combiner

Receive set

The combined
signal

Correlator 3
Calculate the
time delay and
signal strength

Searcher correlator

s(t)

s(t)

RAKE receiver help to overcome on the multi-path fading and enhance

the receive performance of the system

Chapter 3 WCDMA Technologies


Section 1
- Correlation Function
- OVSF and PN code
- Information Spreading & Recovery
- Rake Receiver
Section 2
- WCDMA Transmission Block Diagram
Section 3
- Power Control
- Handover
- Diversity

Block Diagram of WCDMA


System
Source
coding

Channel
coding

Spreading

Modulation

Radio channel

Source
decoding

Channel
decoding

Despreading

Demodulation

Common Technical Terms


Bit, Symbol, Chip:

A bit is the input data which contain information

A symbol is the output of the convolution, encoder, and the


block interleaving

A chip is the output of spreading


Processing Gain:

Processing gain is the ratio of chip rate to the bit rate.

Closely related to spreading factor, SF.


Forward direction/ Downlink : Information path from base station
to mobile station
Reverse direction/ Uplink : Information path from mobile station
to base station

WCDMA System

Source Coding

Voice :

Adaptive multirate technique with rate 4.75kbps 12.2kbps

Channel Coding

CRC Attachment.
Check for error during transmission.
Voice : CRC check returns error, discard information
Data : CRC check returns error; ask for retransmission

Convolutional or Turbo Coding


Convolution coding for voice and low speed signaling
Turbo Coding for large data transmission. Better performance than convolutional coding

Interleaving
Distribute error over data transmitted

Rate Matching
Match symbol rate to that accepted by spreading
Rate matching technique : Repeat or puncturing

WCDMA System
Spreading

Spreading (OVSF code)


SF 4 512, depends on data rate

Scrambling (Gold Code)

Modulation

QPSK

Chapter 3 WCDMA Technologies

Section 1
- Correlation Function
- OVSF and PN code
- Information Spreading & Recovery
- Rake Receiver
Section 2
- WCDMA Transmission Block Diagram
Section 3
- Power Control
- Handover
- Diversity

Power Control
Open Loop Power Control

Set initial power for transmission of PRACH


Closed Loop Power Control

Inner Loop Power Control


Uplink
: Controls power of NodeB.
Downlink : Ensures all power received at NodeB are just enough to
maintain satisfactory connection
Fast Power Control : 1.5khz

Outer Loop Power Control


Set SIRthreshold based on BER/BLER

Open Loop Power Control


Controlled by UE.
Determine UE initial transmission power for random access procedure.
Not in use when inner loop power control running.
UE obtain information from network on:
CPICH power
Uplink interference level
Constant value (Default = 2dB)

UE Initial Power = CPICH power CPICH_RSCP + UL interference +


Constant
PRACH Tx power

System information :
CPICH power, UL interference & constant

Inner Closed Loop Power


Control
Power Control Bit
Located in UE & NodeB
Controls power of dedicated physical channels
SIR threshold

Power controls occurs at 1500Hz, thus known as


fast power control

(SIR)measured

NodeB and UE continuously measure and compare


SIRmeasured with SIRthreshold value, and inform each
other to increase /reduce its power accordingly.

UE3
NodeB

UE1

UE2

With Optimum Power Control

UE2
UE3
UE1
UE4

ceived power at NodeB

UE4

ceived power at NodeB

Without Power Control

UE1

UE2

UE3

UE4

Outer Closed Loop Power


Control
Adjust SIR for every user
Needed to keep track of changes in radio environment

Aims to provide required quality


If SIRthreshold reaches its maximum, system has to perform

- inter-frequency/inter-system handover
- RRC connection release

RNC

SIR threshold

BER/BLER Value

Change in (SIR)threshold

Handover
Softer handover
- Handover between intra-frequency cells under the control of the same BTS
- Radio link connection to new target cell is created before existing connection
being deleted.
Soft handover
- Handover between intra-frequency cells under the control of the different
BTSs
Hard handover
- Condition of hard handover:
Intra-frequency handover, cells controlled by different RNCs and no Iur
interface between them
Inter-frequency handover
Inter-system handover
Interruption in voice or data communication occurs but this interruption
does not effect the user communication

Soft/Softer Handover

Selection combination in the RNC during soft handoff

Maximum ratio combination in the NodeB during softer handoffs

Power received from


a single sector

Combine all the


power from each
sector

Transmission Diversity :
STTD
B0 B1 B2 B3

B0 B1 B2 B3

Antenna 1

Transmission
diversity
processing

Restoring data stream


B0 B1 B2 B3

B2 B3 B0 B1

Antenna 2

Space Time transmit Diversity (STTD)

Transmission Diversity :
TSTD
Data stream 1
Data stream
Transmission
diversity
processing

Antenna 1

Data stream 2
Antenna 2

Time Switch transmit Diversity (TSTD)


Used in synchronization physical channel ( SCH)

Restoring data stream

UMTS Radio Interface Physical Layer

Chapter 1 : Physical Layer Overview


Chapter 2 : Physical Layer Key Technology
Chapter 3 : Physical Layer Procedures
Chapter 4 : Transmit Diversity on Physical
Channel

UTRAN Protocol Structure


Core Network
Iu

Iu

RNS

RNS
Iur
RNC
Iub
Node B

RNC
Iub

Iub

Node B

Node B

Iub
Node B

Spreading Technology
Spreading consists of 2 steps

Channelization operation: Transforms data symbols into chips. Thus


increasing the bandwidth of the signal. The number of chips per data symbol
is called the Spreading FactorSF.The operation is done through
multiplication with OVSF code.

Scrambling operation is applied to the spreading signal.

Chips after
spreading

Data bit

OVSF
code

Scrambling
code

Channelization Code
OVSF code is used as channelization code
The channelization codes are uniquely described as Cch,SF,k, where SF is
the spreading factor of the code and k is the code number, 0 k SF-1.

Cch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1)
Cch,2,0 = (1,1)
Cch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1)
Cch,1,0 = (1)
Cch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1)
Cch,2,1 = (1,-1)
Cch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1)
SF = 1

SF = 2

SF = 4

Scrambling Code
Scrambling code GOLD sequence.
Scrambling code period : 10ms ,or 38400 chips.
The code used for scrambling of uplink DPCCH/DPDCH may be of either long or
short type, There are 224 long and 224 short uplink scrambling codes. Uplink
scrambling codes are assigned by higher layers.
For downlink physical channels, a total of 218-1 = 262,143 scrambling codes can
be generated. Only scrambling codes k = 0, 1, , 8191 are used.

Primary Scrambling Code


Primary
scrambling code 0
Secondary
scrambling code 1

Set 0

Scrambling
codes for
downlink
physical
channels

Set 1

Secondary
scrambling code
15

Primary
scrambling code
51116

Set 511

8192
scrambling
codes

512 sets

Secondary
scrambling code
5111615

Primary Scrambling Code Group


Primary
scrambling code 0
Primary
scrambling code 1

Group 0
Primary
scrambling
codes for
downlink
physical
channels

Primary
scrambling code 7

Group1

Group 63

Primary
scrambling code
8*63

Primary
scrambling code
63*87

512 primary
scrambling codes

64 primary scrambling
code groups

Each group consists of 8


primary scrambling codes

Chapter 1 : Physical Layer Overview

Chapter 2 : Physical Layer Key Technology


Chapter 3 : Physical Layer Procedures
Chapter 4 : Transmit Diversity on Physical
Channel

Chapter 2 : Physical Layer Key Technology


Section 1 Physical Channel Structure and Function
Section 2 Channel Mapping

WCDMA Radio Interface


3GPP protocol defined WCDMA radio interface into three channels:
Physical channel, transport channel and logical channel.
Logical channel: Carrying user services. Divided into 2 types,
based on services it carried: Control channel and service channel.
Transport channel: Between radio interface layer 2 and physical
layer. Services provided by physical layer for MAC layer. Based on
information transported, can be divided into dedicated channel
and common channel.
Physical channel: It is the ultimate embodiment of all kinds of
information when they are transmitted on radio interfaces. Each
channel that uses dedicated carrier frequency, code (spreading
code and scramble) and carrier phase can be regarded as a
dedicated channel.

Logical channel
Dedicated traffic channel

DTCH

Common traffic channel

CTCH

Traffic channel

Broadcast control channel BCCH


Paging control channel

PCCH

Dedicate control channel

DCCH

Common control channel

(CCCH

Control channel

Transport channel
Dedicated Channel

(DCH)

Dedicated Channel (DCH) exists on uplink


or downlink channel.

Broadcast channel
Forward access channel
Paging channel
Random access channel

(BCH)
(FACH)
(PCH)
(RACH)

BCH, FACH & PCH are downlink channels.


Only RACH is common uplink channel

Dedicated transport
channel

Physical Channel
A physical channel is defined by a specific carrier frequency, code (scrambling
code, spreading code) and relative phase.
In UMTS system, the different code (scrambling code or spreading code) can
distinguish the channels.
Most channels consist of radio frames and time slots, and each radio frame
consists of 15 time slots.
Two types of physical channel: UL and DL

Physical Channel
Frequency,code,phase

Downlink Physical Channel


Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel
Downlink DPCH

Downlink Common Physical Channel


Common Pilot Channel (CPICH)
Synchronization Channel (SCH)
Common Control Physical Channel (CCPCH)
Paging Indicator Channel (PICH)
Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH)

Downlink
Physical
Channel

Functions of Downlink DPDCH/DPCCH

Data bearer
at physical layer

DPDCH
DCH data
DCH
data

DPCCH
Provide control data for DPDCH ,such
as demodulation, power control,etc.

Common Pilot
Channel(CPICH)

Common Pilot Channel (CPICH)


Carries pre-defined sequence.
Fixed rate 30Kbps SF=256
Can use STTD on this channel

Common Pilot Channel


(CPICH)
Primary CPICH

Uses OVSF code -Cch, 256,0

Scrambled by the primary scrambling code

Only one CPICH per cell

Broadcast over the entire cell

The P-CPICH is a phase reference for SCH, Primary CCPCH, AICH,


PICH. By default, it is also a phase reference for downlink DPCH.
Secondary CPICH

An arbitrary channel code of SF=256 is used for S-CPICH

S-CPICH is scrambled by either the primary or a secondary scrambling


code

There may be zero, one , or several secondary CPICH.

S-CPICH may be transmitted over part of the cell

S-CPICH may be a phase reference for S-CCPCH and downlink DPCH.

Synchronization Channel (SCH)


Used for cell search
Two sub channels: P-SCH and SSCH.
SCH is transmitted at the first
256 chips of every time slot.
PSC is transmitted repeatedly in
each time slot.
Slot #0
Primary
SCH
Secondary
SCH

SSC specifies the scrambling


code groups of the cell.
SSC is chosen from a set of 16
different codes of length 256,
there are altogether 64 primary
scrambling code groups.

Slot #1

Slot #14

acp

acp

acp

acsi,0

acsi,1

acsi,14

256 chips
2560 chips
One 10 ms SCH radio frame

Primary Common Control Physical


Channel (PCCPCH)

Fixed rate30kbpsSF=256, 1
Carry BCH transport channel
Not transmitted during the first 256 chips of each time slot.
Only data part
STTD transmit diversity may be used

256 chips
Data
18 bits

(Tx OFF)

Tslot = 2560 chips , 20 bits

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i
1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms

Slot #14

Secondary Common Control Physical


Channel (SCCPCH)
Carry FACH and PCH.
Two types of SCCPCH:
with or without TFCI. UTRAN
decides if a TFCI should be
transmitted, UE must support
TFCI.
Possible rates are the same as
that of downlink DPCH
TFCI
NTFCI bits

SF =256 - 4.
FACH and PCH can be mapped
to the same or separate
SCCPCHs. If mapped to the
same S-CCPCH, they can be
mapped to the same frame.

Data
Ndata bits

Pilot
Npilot bits

Tslot = 2560 chips, 20*2k bits (k=0..6)

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i
1 radio frame: T = 10 ms

Slot #14

Paging Indicator Channel (PICH)


Fixed-rate (SF=256, 3), used to carry the Paging Indicators (PI).
PICH is always associated with an S-CCPCH to which a PCH transport channel is
mapped to.
N paging indicators {PI0, , PIN-1} in each PICH frame, N=18, 36, 72, or 144.
If a paging indicator in a certain frame is set to 1, it indicates that UEs associated with
this paging indicator should read the corresponding frame of the associated S-CCPCH.

288 bits for paging indication


b0 b1

12 bits (undefined)
b287 b288

One radio frame (10 ms)

b299

Acquisition Indicator Channel


(AICH)
Frame structure of AICHtwo frames, 20 ms consists of a repeated
sequence of 15 consecutive AS, each of length 20 symbols(5120 chips).
Each time slot consists of two partsan Acquisition-Indicator(AI) and a
part of duration 1024chips with no transmission.
Acquisition-Indicator AI have 16 kinds of Signature.

CPICH is the phase reference of AICH.

AI part
a0 a1 a2

AS #14

AS #0

AS #1

Unused part
a30 a31 a32 a33

AS #i
20 ms

a38 a39

AS #14

AS #0

Uplink Physical Channel


Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel
Uplink Dedicated Physical Data Channel
(Uplink DPDCH)
Uplink Dedicated Physical Control Channel
(Uplink DPCCH)

Uplink Common Physical Channel


Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)

Uplink
Physical
Channel

Physical Random Access Channel


(PRACH)
The PRACH consist of 2 parts:

Preamble
one or several preamble.
Each preamble is of length 4096chips and consists of 256 repetitions of a
signature whose length is 16 chips. Total of 16 signatures
SF : 256

Message part :
Two type, 10 or 20ms message part
SF : 256 - 32
Which signature is available and the length of message part are determined by
higher layer

PRACH Transmission Structure

Preamble

Preamble

Preamble

4096 chips

Preamble
4096 chips

Message part

10 ms (one radio frame)


Preamble

Preamble

Message part
20 ms (two radio frames)

Function of physical channel


Cell broadcast channels
P-CPICH-Primary common pilot channel
S-CPICH-secondary common pilot channel
P-CCPCH-Primary common control physical channel
SCH- Synchronisation Channel
Paging channels
S-CCPCH-Secondary common control physical channel
PICH-paging Indicator Channel
Random access channels
PRACH-Physical random access channel
AICH-Acquisition Indicator Channel
Dedicated channels
DPDCH-dedicated physical data channel
DPCCH-dedicated physical control channel

Chapter 2 : Physical Layer Key Technology


Section 1 Physical Channel Structure and Function
Section 2 Channel Mapping

Channel Mapping
Higher
Layer data
Logical
Channels
(Data
Dependent)

Paging

System
Info

Signaling

Cell
Broadcast
Service

Signaling
and
User data
DCCH

PCCH

BCCH

CCCH

CTCH

Decicated
Logical
Channel
CipherOn

{XOR}

Transport
Channels
(L1 Characteristics
Dependent)

Physical
Channels

PCH

S-CCPCH

BCH

P-CCPCH

FACH

RACH

DCH

PRACH

DPDCH

DTCH
DTCH
DTCH

Chapter 1 : Physical Layer Overview

Chapter 2 : Physical Layer Key Technology

Chapter 3 : Physical Layer Procedures


Chapter 4 : Transmit Diversity on Physical
Channel

Chapter 3 : Physical Layer Procedure


Section 1 Synchronisation Procedure ( Cell Search)
Section 2 Random Access Procedure

1. Synchronization Procedure
Cell Search
Slot synchronization

Frame synchronization and


code-group identification

Scrambling-code
identification

UE uses PSC to acquire slot


synchronization to a cell

UE uses SSC to find frame


synchronization and identify
the code group of the cell
found in the first step

UE determines the primary scrambling


code through correlation over the
CPICH with all codes within the
identified group, and then detects the
P-CCPCH and reads BCH information

Chapter 3 : Physical Layer Procedure


Section 1 Synchronisation Procedure ( Cell Search)
Section 2 Random Access Procedure

2. Random Access ProcedureRACH


Physical random access procedure
1. UE decoded BCH to find out the available RACH sub-channel, its scrambling
code and available signature.
2. Randomly select one of the RACH sub-channels from the group its access class
allows to use. Signature also selected randomly from among the available
signatures.
3. Set Preamble Retransmission Counter to Preamble_ Retrans_ Max
4. Set Preamble Initial Power
5. Transmit a preamble using the selected uplink access slot, signature, and
preamble transmission power

2. Random Access Procedure


RACH
6. If no Acquisition Indicator received for the corresponding signature in the
downlink access slot :

Select the next available access slot in the set of available RACH subchannels within the given access service class (ASC)

Select a signature

Increase the Commanded Preamble Power

Decrease the Preamble Retransmission Counter by one. If the Preamble


Retransmission Counter > 0 then repeat from step 6. Otherwise exit the
physical random access procedure.

2. Random Access Procedure


RACH
7. If Negative Acquisition Indicator corresponding to the selected signature
is detected in the downlink access slot corresponding to the selected
uplink access slot, exit the physical random access procedure
8. If a Positive Acquisition Indicator corresponding to the selected signature
is detected, Transmit the random access message three or four uplink
access slots after the uplink access slot of the last transmitted preamble
9. Exit physical random access procedure

Thank You