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Submitted to:
Dr. Kailash Singh
Associate Professor

Submitted by:
Shivangi Bansal
Nimish Agarwal 2013UCH1212
Himanshu Sharma 2013UCH1091
Divij Chopra
Tarushi Parashar

Pressure is the ratio of force to
the area over which that force is
Pressure is force per unit area applied
in a direction perpendicular to the
surface of an object.

Pressure Units and their Conversion

1 Pa

Pascal = 1 N/m2 (The SI unit)

1 psi

= 1 lb/in2 (English unit) = 6,891


1 Bar

= 105 N/m2 = 100 kPa 1 atm

1 Torr

= 1 mm Hg = 133.3 Pa 1 kPa

1 atm

= 101.3 kPa = 760 mm Hg =

29.92 in Hg = 14.70 psi

How is pressure generated?

Collision of molecule with wall

Momentum is mass x velocity
Change of momentum is double
Collision is isothermal = perfectly elastic
Sum collisions over area to get force

Types of Pressure
Absolute Pressure - The actual pressure at a given
position is called the absolute pressure, and it is measured
relative to absolute vacuum (i.e., absolute zero pressure).

Gauge Pressure - Gauge pressure is the pressure

relative to the atmospheric pressure. In other words, how
much above or below is the pressure with respect to the
atmospheric pressure.

Vacuum Pressure - Pressures below atmospheric pressure

are called vacuum pressures and are measured by vacuum gages
that indicate the difference between the atmospheric pressure
and the absolute pressure.

Atmospheric Pressure - The atmospheric pressure is the

pressure that an area experiences due to the force exerted by the

Pgauge = Pabs Patm

Gauge pressure

Pvac = Patm Pabs

Vacuum pressure

Pabs = Patm + Pgauge

Absolute pressure

Classification of Measuring Devices

Moderate Pressure Sensors
Bourdon Tube gauge
Bellow gauge
Diaphragm gauge
High Pressure Sensors
High wire pressure transducer
Low Pressure Sensors
McLeod Gauge
Ultra Low Pressure Sensors
Knudsen gauge
Ionisation gauge

There are two types of devices for moderate
pressure measurement1. Manometers for measuring static pressure
2. Elastic elements for measuring static and dynamic

ManometersA 'manometer' is an instrument that uses a column of liquid

to measure pressure, although the term is often used
nowadays to mean any pressure measuring instrument.
Important and desirable properties of the manometric
fluids are:
High chemical stability
Low viscosity
Low capillary constant
Low coefficient of thermal expansion
Low volatility
Low vapour pressure

U- Tube



A manometer is comprised
of a bulb containing a gas
and a U-shaped tube.
The U-shaped tube is
partially filled with mercury.
The weight of the mercury
puts pressure on the gas.
If the U-tube is OPEN there
is also air pressure acting on
the gas.
The gas molecules put
pressure on the mercury.

This manometer consists of a
U shaped tube in which the
manometeric liquid is filled.
The manometer is used to
measure the pressure which is
unknown by the balancing
gravity force and acceleration
due to gravity, g = 9.81 m/sec2

Well Type Manometer

Inclined Tube Manometer

Elastic TransducersThe main types of Elastic Transducers areBourdon tubes

Corrugated diaphragms
Helical tube
All except diaphragms provide a fairly large displacement
that is useful in mechanical gauges and for electrical
sensors that require a significant movement.

Types of Measuring DevicesBourdon Pressure Gauge

The Bourdon pressure

gauge uses the principle
that a flattened tube tends
to straighten or regain its
circular form in crosssection when pressurized.
The strain of the material
of the tube is magnified by
forming the tube into a C
shape or even a helix, such
that the entire tube tends
to straighten out or uncoil,
elastically, as it is

LVDT Type Pressure Transducer

Current is induced in a circuit when there is change in

magnetic flux. The change in flux can be obtained by
moving a high permeability magnetic core relative to
any circuit.


This sensor consists of a piezoelectric crystal (made

from quartz) which functions as a force-sensitive
voltage source where the piezoelectric will be in
between two plates.

Pressure exerted on the crystal surface is

proportionate to the voltage produced by the crystal.

This sensor does not require any voltage supply.

This sensor is suitable for fast changing pressure


Capacitance Type Pressure Transducer

Change in distance between two plates of a capacitor results in

change in capacitance.
Change in pressure results in deflection in diaphragm and hence
change in capacitance. this change is converted into electrical signal
and used in CTPT.

Diaphragm Type Strain Gauge Pressure Transducer

R1 and R3 measures radial strain near the outer radius of the

diaphragm while R2 and R4 are bonded near the centre and
measures tangential strain.
r - tangential stress
t - radial stress
t- diaphragm thickness
v-Poissons ratio
P-pressure on the diaphragm

From strength and elasticity of

materials, it is seen that deflection
y at a radius r of a circular
diaphragm clamped at its outer
periphery is given by-

p-pressure on the diaphragm

E- Youngs Modulus of the diaphragm material
v- Poissons ratio
R- radius of diaphragm
t- thickness of diaphragm

High Pressure Measurement

High wire pressure transducer
For pressures above 1000 atm, techniques based on the
electrical resistance change of a manganin or a gold
chrome wire with hydrostatic pressure, due to bulk
compression effect is used.

R- Resistance of wire
E- Youngs Modulus of wire
p- Pressure
- Density

Low Pressure Measurement

McLeod gauge
A McLeod gauge is a scientific instrument
used to measure very low pressures, down
to 10-6 Torr.
It isolates a sample of gas and compresses
it in a modified mercury manometer until
the pressure is a few mm Hg.

Pi = ghA/(V-Ah)
V- Volume of capillary tube
A- Area of cross section of

The most convenient method of
measuring pressures below 0.1
Pa is to ionise the gas molecules,
collect the ions and measure the
ion current which is included in
ionization gauge.

P = Ip/S Ig
Useful range: roughly 10-8 0.1 Pa

P Pressure
Ig Grid Current
Ip Plate Current
S Sensitivity (Chemical

An instrument for measuring very
low pressures, which measures the
force of a gas on a cold plate
beside which there is an
electrically heated plate.
It is an absolute gauge for
measurement of pressure in range
10-8 to 10-3 torr.

Pi = K F /((Ts /Tm)-1)

Ts-Absolute temperature of stationary plate

Tm- Absolute temperature of movable plate
K-Elastic constant of gauge
F- Force

1. Nakra, B.C. and Chaudhary, K.K., Instrumentation,
Measurement and Analysis, 2nd ed., Tata McGraw
Hill, New Delhi, 2004.
2. Eckman, D. P., Industrial Instrumentation, Wiley
Eastern , 1978