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Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

U N IVERSIT Y OF IN D ON ESIA

Atoms, Molecules
and Ions

The Atomic Theory of Matter


The Discovery of Atomic Structure
The Modern View of Atomic Structure
The Periodic Table
Molecules and Molecular Compounds
Ions and Ionic Compounds
Naming Inorganic Compounds

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The Atomic Theory of


Matter

Early in the nineteenth century, John Dalton


put forth the first useful theory describing
matter as consisting of atoms.
Dalton's atomic theory can be summarized in
the following four postulates:

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The Atomic Theory of


Matter

Postulate 1:

each element is composed of extremely small


particles called atoms.

Postulate 2:

all atoms of given element are identical;


the atoms of different elements are different
and have different properties.

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The Atomic Theory of


Matter

Postulate 3:

Atoms of an element are not changed into


different types by chemical reactions;
atoms are neither created nor destroyed in
chemical reactions.

Postulate 4:

Compounds are formed when atoms of more


than one element combine;
a given compound always has the same relative
number and kind of atoms.

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The Atomic Theory of


Matter

Dalton's theory was used to explain the law


of constant composition and the law of
conservation of mass.
The law of constant composition says that any
given compound always consists of the same
atoms and the same ratio of atoms.
For example, water always consists of oxygen and
hydrogen atoms, and it is always 89 percent
oxygen by mass and 11 percent hydrogen by mass.

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The Atomic Theory of


Matter

The law of conservation of mass says that the


total mass of materials before and after a
chemical reaction must be the same.
For example, if we combine 89 grams of oxygen
with 11 grams of hydrogen under the appropriate
conditions, 100 grams of water will be produced
no more and no less.

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The Atomic Theory of


Matter

In addition to explaining these two wellknown laws, Dalton used his atomic theory to
predict another law.
The law of multiple proportions, which states
that
if two elements combine to form more than one
compound, the masses of one of the elements
that can combine with a given mass of the other
element are related by factors of small whole
numbers.

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The Atomic Theory of


Matter

For example, water has an oxygen-tohydrogen mass ratio of 7.9:1.


Hydrogen peroxide, another compound
consisting of oxygen and hydrogen, has an
oxygen-to-hydrogen mass ratio of 15.8:1.
The ratio of these two ratios gives a small
whole number.

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The Atomic Theory of


Matter

Multiple Proportion

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The Atomic Theory of


Matter

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The Discovery of
Atomic Structure

By the middle of the nineteenth century, there


was evidence to suggest that the atom, once
thought to be the smallest indivisible particle
of matter, was actually made up of even
smaller subatomic particles.
Some of the experiments that led to the
discovery and characterization of subatomic
particles are cathode-ray tube experiments.

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The Discovery of
Atomic Structure

Figure 2.4. Cathode-ray tube with perpendicular magnetic and electric fields.
The cathode rays (electrons) originate from the negative plate on the left, and
they are accelerated toward the positive plate, which has a hole in its center. A
beam of electrons passes through the hole, and its motion is subsequently
deflected by the magnetic and electric fields. The charge-to-mass ratio of the
electron can be determined by measuring the effects of the magnetic and electric
fields on the motion of the beam.

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The Discovery of
Atomic Structure

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The Discovery of
Atomic Structure

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The Discovery of
Atomic Structure

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The Discovery of
Atomic Structure

The Millikan Oil-Drop Experiment

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The Discovery of
Atomic Structure

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The Discovery of
Atomic Structure

Experiments with Radioactivity


Separation of Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Rays

Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment


Rutherford Experiment: Nuclear Atom

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The Discovery of
Atomic Structure

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The Discovery of
Atomic Structure

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The Discovery of
Atomic Structure

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The Discovery of
Atomic Structure

Canal Ray

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The Discovery of
Atomic Structure

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The Modern View of


Atomic Structure

Our modern view of the atom is that it


consists of a positively charged nucleus
surrounded by electrons.
The nucleus contains two types of subatomic
particles:
protons, which are positively charged; and
neutrons, which are not charged.

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The Modern View of


Atomic Structure

Together they make up nearly all of the mass


of an atom, but they occupy only a very small
percentage of its total volume.
The electrons, which occupy most of the
volume, constitute only a tiny percentage of
the mass of an atom.

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The Modern View of


Atomic Structure

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The Discovery of
Atomic Structure

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The Discovery of
Atomic Structure

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The Modern View of


Atomic Structure

Atoms of a particular element all have the


same number of protons.
The number of protons is called the atomic
number.
The sum of the protons and neutrons in an
atom is that atom's mass number.

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The Modern View of


Atomic Structure

Isotopes are atoms of a given element that have the


same number of protons but different numbers of
neutrons and therefore have different mass numbers.
A superscript to the left of the element symbol
indicates its mass number, which specifies the isotope.
The atomic number can be shown as a subscript below
the mass number; however, since every atom of a
given element has the same atomic number, it is not
necessary and very often is not done.

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The Modern View of


Atomic Structure

Isotopes are atoms of a given element that have the


same number of protons but different numbers of
neutrons and therefore have different mass numbers.
A superscript to the left of the element symbol
indicates its mass number, which specifies the isotope.
The atomic number can be shown as a subscript below
the mass number; however, since every atom of a
given element has the same atomic number, it is not
necessary and very often is not done.

11C, 12C, 13C, 14C

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The Periodic Table


Elements are arranged in the periodic table in
order of increasing atomic number.
The columns are called groups and contain
elements with similar physical and chemical
properties.
There are several ways to categorize the
elements in the periodic table.

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The Periodic Table


The elements can be separated into individual
groups, each labeled with a letter and a
number; some of the groups have special
group names.
The elements can also be separated into
metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.
Finally, the elements can be separated into
main-group
elements
and
transition
elements.

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The Periodic Table

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The Periodic Table

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The Periodic Table

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The Periodic Table

Periodic Table

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Molecular and
Molecular Compound

As we saw in Chapter 1, matter can exist as a


mixture or as a pure substance.
Pure substances can be elements or compounds,
and compounds can consist of molecules or ions.
A molecule is an electrically neutral "package" of
two or more atoms tightly bound together.
Substances that exist as molecules are said to be
molecular.

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Molecular and
Molecular Compound

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Molecular and
Molecular Compound

Both elements and compounds can exist as


molecules.
For example, bromine and water are both
molecular substances.
The composition of a molecule is given by its
chemical formula.
The chemical formulas of bromine and water
are Br2 and H2O, respectively.

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Molecular and
Molecular Compound

The subscripts in each formula denote the


number of atoms of each element in the
molecule.
Thus, a bromine molecule consists of two
bromine atoms.
A water molecule consists of two hydrogen
atoms and one oxygen atom.
These two formulas are molecular formulas.

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Molecular and
Molecular Compound

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Molecular and
Molecular Compound

Hydrogen peroxide's molecular formula is


H2O2.
Each hydrogen peroxide molecule is made up
of two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen
atoms.
There is another way to express the formula
for hydrogen peroxide, though.

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Molecular and
Molecular Compound

The empirical formula of a substance simply


gives the ratio of the combination of the
constituent elements.
Hydrogen peroxide, then, with a ratio of
hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms of 1:1, has
an empirical formula of HO.

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Molecular and
Molecular Compound

Obviously, an empirical formula does not


contain as much information as does a
molecular formula.
Molecular substances have both molecular
formulas and empirical formulas.
In many cases, as with water and carbon
dioxide, they are the same.

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Molecular and
Molecular Compound

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Molecular and
Molecular Compound

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Ion and Ionic


Compound

Many compounds consist of ions rather than


molecules.
Such compounds are said to be ionic.
An ion is an electrically charged "package"
consisting of one (monatomic ion) or more
(polyatomic ion) atoms.
An ion with a positive charge is called a cation
(CAT-ion), while an ion with a negative charge
is called an anion (AN-ion).

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Ion and Ionic


Compound

Ionic compounds do not exist as molecules


and so do not have molecular formulas.
Rather, ionic substances such as sodium
chloride and magnesium chloride have only
empirical
formulasNaCl
and
MgCl2,
respectively.

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Ion and Ionic


Compound

The charges on many atomic ions can be


predicted using the periodic table.
In general, for a nonmetal to form an ion, it
will gain as many electrons as it needs in order
to have the same number of electrons as a
noble gas.
Metals will lose electrons to become cations,
while nonmetals will gain electrons to become
anions.

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Ion and Ionic


Compound

Sodium will lose one electron, giving it a total


of 10. (The noble gas neon has 10 electrons.)
When it loses one electron, the sodium atom
(Na) becomes the sodium ion (Na+).
Note that the name of the cation is simply the
name of the element plus the word "ion."

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Ion and Ionic


Compound

Chlorine will gain one electron, giving it a total


of 18. (The noble gas argon has 18 electrons.)
When it gains one electron, the chlorine atom
(Cl) becomes the chloride ion (Cl).
Note that the name of the ion is simply the
element's name with the ending changed to
ide.

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Ion and Ionic


Compound

Ions such as sodium and chloride combine in


ratios to give empirical formulas with no net
charge.

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Ion and Ionic


Compound

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Ion and Ionic


Compound

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Naming Inorganic
Compounds

In order to deduce the names and formulas of


ionic compounds, it is important to know the
names, charges, and formulas of the ions
involved.
Names of main-group monatomic ions are
straightforward.

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Naming Inorganic
Compounds

A cation takes the name of the element plus


the word "ion."
Na, Sr, Ba, Li, K Al
Na+
sodium ion
Zn2+ zinc ion
Al3+
Aluminum ion

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Naming Inorganic
Compounds

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Naming Inorganic
Compounds

For anions, the element name has its ending


replaced with ide.
N, O, Cl, I, Se, S

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Naming Inorganic
Compounds

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Naming Inorganic
Compounds

Some transition metals can form more than


one ion.
Iron, for example, forms both Fe2+ and Fe3+.
To name such an ion unambiguously, we use
the name of the element, a Roman numeral in
parentheses to denote the charge, and the
word "ion." Fe2+ and Fe3+ would be iron(II) ion
and iron(III) ion, respectively.

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Naming Inorganic
Compounds

Most of the common polyatomic ions are


anions, although a few are cations.
It is important to know the names, charges,
and formulas of all of these ions.

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Naming Inorganic
Compounds

Remember that ions combine in ratios that


give neutral compounds.
The charge on an ion is unambiguous and,
provided it is named correctly, it is not
necessary to specify the relative amounts of
each ion in the name of an ionic compound.

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Naming Inorganic
Compounds

For example, NaCl is sodium chloride.


MgCl2 is magnesium chloride.
We don't use a prefix to denote the number of
chloride ions; we know that there are two
because of the charges on Mg (+2) and Cl (1).
There is only one possible ratio in which they
can combine.

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Naming Inorganic
Compounds

Names and formulas of acids follow naturally


from the naming of ionic compounds. (Even
though acids are not ionic!)
Thus, Cl requires one hydrogen ion to
become HCl, a familiar acid.
SO42 requires two hydrogen ions to become
H2SO4, another familiar acid.

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Naming Inorganic
Compounds

To name an acid derived from an atomic


anion, remove the ide ending from the anion,
replace it with ic, and surround the new name
with the prefix hydro and the word acid.
Example: The anion in HCl is the chloride ion.
Remove the ide ending, and replace it with ic.
Surround the new word with hydro and acid,
and you have hydrochloric acid.

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Naming Inorganic
Compounds

For acids derived from polyatomic anions, simply


replace the suffix of the anion name and add the word
acid.
The ending ate gets replaced with ic; the ending ite
gets replaced with ous.
The acid derived from nitrate ion becomes nitric acid.
That derived from nitrite ion becomes nitrous acid.
(Some of the anion roots change slightly for acid
names. Example: The acids derived from sulfate and
sulfite ions are sulfuric and sulfurous acids,
respectively.)

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Naming Inorganic
Compounds

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Naming Inorganic
Compounds

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Naming Inorganic
Compounds

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Naming Inorganic
Compounds

Naming binary molecular compounds is very


much like naming ionic compounds, with one
difference.
With molecular compounds, we use Greek
prefixes to denote how many of each atom are
present.

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Naming Inorganic
Compounds

The procedures used for naming binary (twoelement) molecular compounds are similar to
those used for naming ionic compounds:
The name of the element farthest to the left in the
periodic table is usually written first.
If both elements are in the same group in the
periodic table, the lower one is named first.
The name of the second element is given an -ide
ending.

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Naming Inorganic
Compounds

The procedures used for naming binary (twoelement) molecular compounds are similar to
those used for naming ionic compounds:
Greek prefixes (Table 2.6) are used to indicate the
number of atoms of each element.
The prefix mono- is never used with the first
element.
When the prefix ends in a or o and the name of
the anion begins with a vowel (such as oxide), the
a or o is often dropped.

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Naming Inorganic
Compounds

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Naming Inorganic
Compounds

Examples:
Cl2O
N2O4
NF3
P4S10

dichlorine monoxide
dinitrogen tetroxide
nitrogen trifluoride
tetraphosphorus decasuldife

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Naming Inorganic
Compounds

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