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# API 510 Preparatory Course

Lesson 9

## UW-16 Minimum Requirements for

Attachment Welds at Openings

## UW-16 Minimum Requirements for

Attachment Welds at Openings
(a) General
(1) The terms: nozzles, connections, reinforcements,
necks, tubes, fittings, pads, and other similar terms used in
this paragraph define essentially the same type construction
and form a Category D weld joint between the nozzle (or
other term) and the shell, head, etc
(2) The location and minimum size of attachment welds
for nozzles and other connections shall conform to the
requirements of this paragraph in addition to the strength
path calculations required in UW-15. Not on exam!

## UW-16 Fillet Weld Sizing For Attachments at

Openings
These are variables that will apply to the Exam.
t = nominal thickness of vessel shell or head, in.
t n= nominal thickness of nozzle wall, in.

## tmin= the smaller of 3/4 in. or the thickness of the thinner of

the parts joined by a fillet, single-bevel, or single-J weld, in.
tc= not less than the smaller of 1/4 in. or 0.7tmin

## UW-16 Fillet Weld Sizing For Attachments at

Openings
The fillet weld sizing of UW-16 can be solved in either of two
ways. That is, you may determine if a fillet weld leg size
provides an adequate fillet weld throat size per Code or
based on the thicknesses of the shell and nozzle determine
the minimum throat size required and convert that to leg
size.
In the latter case, usually the leg size decimal value is
rounded to the next fractional 1/16th inch.
In these examples we will work it both ways using the same
shell and nozzle thicknesses. The examples will be
restricted to only Fig UW-16.1(i).

## UW-16 Fillet Weld Sizing For Attachments at

Openings
Problem: A nozzle is being attached to a shell as shown in
Fig. UW-16.1 (i) using two equal size fillet welds. The shell's
thickness is 7/8 in. and the nozzle's thickness is 1/2 inch.
The fillet welds are 3/8 inch in leg size. Does this meet
Code?

## UW-16 Fillet Weld Sizing For Attachments at

Openings
Case 1: Determine the minimum throat size.
From Fig. UW-16.1(i) we are given that:
t 1 or t 2 not lessthan

t 1 + t 2 1 1 t min
4

the smallerof 1

in.

or .707 t min.

## From UW-16 we are given the following definitions:

tmin = the smaller of 3/4 in. or the thickness of the thinner of
the two parts joined by a fillet weld.
t1 and t2 are the throat sizes of the welds as depicted in Fig.
UW-16.1(i).

## UW-16 Fillet Weld Sizing For Attachments at

Openings

Step 1 Determine the throat size of a 3/8 in leg size fillet weld.

## Throat size equals .707 times leg size.

0.707 x 0.375 in. = .265 in. = t 1 or t2

## UW-16 Fillet Weld Sizing For Attachments at

Openings
Step 2 Determine tmin
tmin = the smaller of 1/2 in or 3/4 in. So tmin = 1/2 in.
Step 3 Determine if: t 1 + t 2 1 1 4 t min

.530" .625"

## .530" is neither greater than or equal to .625". Therefore the

first test fails and the throat size of the 3/8" leg fillet weld is
too small.
We could stop here and answer the question with a No! But
let's finish up with the second test of size required for an
illustration of the technique required.

## UW-16 Fillet Weld Sizing For Attachments at

Openings
Step 4 Test to see if:

## t 1 or t 2 not less than

the smaller of 1 in.
4
or .707 t min.

Not less than the smaller of .250 in. or .707 x 1/2 in.
.707 x .500" = .353
So not less than .250". Both t1 and t2 are .265".
.265 in. > .250 in. Fillet welds are adequate in the second
test. However a fillet weld size must pass both tests!

## UW-16 Fillet Weld Sizing For Attachments at

Openings
Case 2: Based on material thicknesses determine the
minimum leg size of equal sized fillet welds to the next
1/16th inch. In our problem thicknesses are 7/8 inch (shell)
and 1/2 inch (nozzle). We have already determined that 3/8
inch leg fillet welds are too small. So let's determine what
size of equal leg fillet welds are required rounded up to the
next 1/16th inch.
The approach here is to find the value of 1-1/4 tmin and
divide by 2 to find the throat of two equal sized fillets welds.
Then convert to leg size. It goes like this;

## UW-16 Fillet Weld Sizing

Step 1 Determine tmin
tmin = the smaller of 1/2 in or 3/4 in.

## So tmin = 1/2 in.

Step 2 Determine .707 tmin
.707 x .500" = .353

## Step 3 Determine 1 1/4 tmin

1.25 x .500" = .625
From Fig. UW-16.1(i) we are given that:

t 1 + t 2 1 1 t min
4

## t 1 or t 2 not less than

the smaller of 1 in.
4
or .707 t min.

## UW-16 Fillet Weld Sizing

Step 4.
First a 1/4" throat requires a leg size of .353 about 3/8
inches.
A : .625/2 = .3125 So .3125 + .3125 = 1 1/4 tmin
B : .3125 > .250 ( t1 or t2 minimum size is satisfied)
C : To convert throat to leg, divide the throat by .707
.3125/.707 = .4420 (Round up to the next 1/16).
6/16 = .375 or 7/16 = .4375 or 8/16 = .500
.4375 < .4420 < .500

Class Quiz
UW-16 Fillet Weld Sizing
1. A fillet weld has a leg size of 1 1/8". What is its throat
size?
2. A fillet weld has a throat size of .600". What is its leg size
rounded up to the next fractional 1/16"?

Solutions
Throat = Leg Size x .707
1. 1.125 x .707 = .7953 = throat size

2. Leg Size =

Throat
.707

.600
.8486
.707

## Therefore the next 1/16 would be a 7/8

13/16 <. 8486 < 7/8 (14/16) or .8125 <. 8486 <. 875

Class Quiz
UW-16 Fillet Weld Sizing
3. Using Fig. UW-16.1 sketch (i) determine the minimum leg
size for the following based on the value of tmin = .750
You will need these two formulas;

Throat
Leg =
.707
And minimum throat is equal to

t 1 + t 2 1 1 t min
4

Solutions
3. Determine leg size.

## t min = .750 1.25 x .750 = .9375 =

t 1 + t 2 1 1 t min
4

## .9375/2 = .46875 (throat) to find Leg size =

.46875
.6630
.707

.6630 = the individual leg sizes of two equal sized fillet welds.

## Converting to fractional inches 11/16 = .6875 5/8 = .625

So .625 < .6630 < .6875 rounded up to the fractional 1/16 the
leg size is 11/16.

## UG-36 Opening in Pressure Vessels

Page 43 Section VIII

## (3) Openings in vessels not subject to rapid fluctuations in

pressure do not require reinforcement other than that
inherent in the construction under the following conditions:
(a) welded, brazed, and flued connections meeting the
applicable rules and with a finished opening not larger
than:
1. 3-1/2 in. (89 mm) diameter in vessel shells or
heads 3/8 in. or less in thickness;
2. 2-3/8 in. diameter in vessel shells or heads over
3/8 in. in thickness;

## The main things of interests in this paragraph to the API 510

inspector are the following:
(1) All references to dimensions apply to the finished
construction after deduction for material added as corrosion
allowance.
(2) Openings not subject to rapid fluctuations in pressure do
not require reinforcement other than that inherent in the
construction under the following conditions:
(a) The finished opening is not larger than:
3 1/2 diameter in vessel shells or heads 3/8 or
less in thickness.

## Reinforcement For Openings In Shells And

2- 3/8 diameter in vessel shells or heads over 3/8 in
thickness.
(c) No two isolated un-reinforced openings, in
accordance with the above shall have their centers closer to
each other than the sum of their diameters.

## UG-40 Limits of Reinforcement

Page 51 Section VIII
This paragraph defines the distance in any direction that can
be count as reinforcement in your calculations. This means
that if a vessel wall has excess metal above that required by
calculation, how far on each side of the opening can you
take credit for this extra metal as reinforcement?
Also considered is how much of the nozzle excess thickness
above the hole in the vessel can be counted as
reinforcement for the opening.

## Reinforcement for Openings in Shells and Heads

a. You may not need to replace all of the metal removed.
GIVEN AS A: The dark cross hatched area is the diameter
of the finished opening multiplied times the minimum
thickness that is the required by the calculations of UG-27
for a shell or UG -32 if the opening is in a head, etc.

## Reinforcement for Openings in Shells and

b. The vessel and the nozzle walls usually have excess
thickness above that required to resist pressure. This
excess thickness is counted toward reinforcement.
Corrosion allowance cannot be included in areas A1 or A2
below.
GIVEN AS A1 and A2. The shaded areas are the extra
metal.

## Reinforcement for Openings in Shells and

c. If the nozzle extends inside the shell, within certain limits
this nozzle metal can be counted, less any corrosion
allowance. The API 510 exam body of knowledge has
excluded inward projection from the test.

## GIVEN AS A3 Note: Area 3 has been eliminated on the API

510 Body of Knowledge.

## Reinforcement for Openings in Shells and

d. The welds used to attach the nozzle to the shell count as
area available for reinforcement. Interior weld area has been
eliminated because the exam does not cover inward
projections.

## GIVEN AS A4 Out Side Fillet Only For Exam No Interior

Projection on the Examination !

## Reinforcement for Openings in Shells and

e. The required cross-sectional area shall be the area of the
shell or head required to resist pressure which is given as A.
If the sum of A1+A2+A4 is equal to or greater than A the
opening is adequately reinforced If not, more reinforcement
must be added. Usually this will be in the form of a
reinforcement pad. Its area is found as follows:
A - (A1+A2+A4) = Area required for the re-pad, thicker
nozzle or, shell wall if the sum of the three is less than A.

## Reinforcement for Openings in Shells and

This type of problem can get complicated very quickly
because of the number of steps involved. However the API
510 Exam Body of Knowledge has simplified this type of
problem by doing this:
a. There will be no inward projection for the nozzle.
b. The nozzle will enter at 90 degrees to the shell or head
(All F values are set to 1.0).
c. The opening will not pass through a Category A weld (All
E values are set to 1.0).
d. Nozzles and shell will be of the same strength (All fr1, fr2
etc. values are set to 1.0).

## e. Actual thickness and required thickness of shells and

nozzles will be given within the problem (No calculation for tr
or trn will be required).
f. The inspector should be able to compensate for corrosion
allowance. Weld strength calculations are excluded.

## Reinforcement for Openings in Shells and

The API 510 Body of Knowledge has placed the following
limits on reinforcement problems.
The inspector should:
a. Understand the key concepts of reinforcement.
1. Replacement of strength removed
2. Limits of reinforcement
3. Credit can be taken for extra metal in the shell and
nozzle
b. Be able to calculate the required size of a reinforcement

## To simplify the problem:

1. All fr = 1.0
2. All F = 1.0
3. All E = 1.0
4. All thicknesses are given.
5. There will be no nozzle projecting inside the shell.

Class Quiz
Reinforcement for Openings in Shells and
1. When calculating reinforcement, from what parts must a
corrosion allowance be deducted (where)?
2. As regards reinforcement how is the area A found? State
the formula.
3. How many points is reinforcement calculations worth on
the exam? How many points is hydrostatic test calculation
worth on the exam?

Solutions

## 1. Corrosion allowance must be deducted from all surfaces

in contact with the corrosive substance before
calculations are performed.
2. A = d x tr (Area required) by the API 510 Body of
Knowledge.
3. Answer: 2/3 points for the reinforcement and 2/3 points for
the hydrostatic calculations. Which one takes the most
study time? Which one of these are you most likely to do
in actual practice? Which one of these is the most likely to
be on the exam?

## Appendix L Problem L 7.1

If you have Appendix L of Section VIII Page 534 there
you will find a perfect example of the type of problem the
API 510 Body of Knowledge has limited reinforcement
calculations to. It is identical to the description from the
Body of Knowledge.
Take it to the exam, it is part of Section VIII and since you
can take entire Code books, VIII, IX, and, V if you so
desire, why not take Appendix L. It has a lot more than
just reinforcement. Shells, heads, Charpy impacts, joint
efficiencies, and, hydrostatic head calculations included.

The Beginning of
the End!