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Machine model

Consider the machine as two sets of abc windings, one on the stator and one on the
rotor.

Machine model
The voltage equation for each phase will have the form:
That is, we can write them all in the following form:
vas rs
v 0
bs
vcs 0

0
var
vbr
0

0
vcr

rs

rs

0
0

0
0

0 ias
as

0 0 0 ibs
bs
0 0 0 ics d cs

rr 0 0 iar dt ar
br
0 rr 0 ibr


0 0 rr icr
cr
0

v(t ) ri (t )

d (t )
dt

All rotor terms are given on


the rotor side in these
equations.

We can write the flux terms as functions of the currents, via an equation for
each flux of the form =Lkik, where the summation is over all six winding
currents. However, we must take note that there are four kinds of terms in each
summation.

Machine model
Stator-stator terms: These are terms which relate a stator winding flux to a
stator winding current. Because the positional relationship between any pair
of stator windings does not change with rotor position, these inductances
are not a function of rotor position; they are constants.
Rotor-rotor terms: These are terms which relate a rotor winding flux to a
rotor winding current. As in stator-stator-terms, these are constants.
Rotor-stator terms: These are terms which relate a rotor winding flux to a
stator winding current. As the rotor turns, the positional relationship between
the rotor winding and the stator winding will change, and so the inductance
will change. Therefore the inductance will be a function of rotor position,
characterized by rotor angle .
Stator-rotor terms: These are terms which relate a stator winding flux to a
rotor winding current. As described for the rotor-stator terms, the inductance
will be a function of rotor position, characterized by rotor angle .

Machine model
There are two more comments to make about the flux-current relations:
Because the rotor motion is periodic, the functional dependence of each
rotor-stator or stator-rotor inductance on is cosinusoidal.
Because changes with time as the rotor rotates, the inductances are
functions of time.
We may now write down the flux equations for the stator and the rotor
windings.

as

bs
cs L s

ar L rs
br

cr

ias
i
bs
L sr ics

L r iar
ibr

icr

Note here that all quantities are now referred


to the stator. The effect of referring is straightforward, given in the book by P. Krause,
Analysis of Electric Machinery, 1995, IEEE
Press, pp. 167-168. I will not go through it
here.

Each of the submatrices in the inductance matrix is a 3x3, as given on the next
slide
4


Ls Lm
1
L s Lm
2
1L
2 m

Machine model

1
Lm
2
Ls Lm
1
Lm
2

Lm
2

1
Lm
2

Ls Lm

Diagonal elements are the self-inductance


of each winding and include leakage plus
mutual. Off-diagonal elements are mutual
inductances between windings and are
negative because 120 axis offset
between any pair of windings results in
flux contributed by one winding to have
negative component along the main axis
of another winding.

1
1

L
m
m
m
r
2
2
1

1
L r Lm Lr Lm Lm
2
2

1
1L

Lm Lr Lm
m
2

2
cos m 120 cos m 120
cos m
L sr Lm cos m 120
cos m
cos m 120
cos m 120 cos m 120

cos m

cos m 120 cos m 120


cos m
T
L rs Lm cos m 120
cos m
cos m 120 L sr
cos m 120 cos m 120

cos m

Machine model
Summarizing.

vas rs
v 0
bs
vcs 0

var 0
vbr 0

vcr 0

rs

rs

rr

0
0

0
0

0
0

rr
0

Lr Lm
1
L r Lm
2
1L
2 m

Ls Lm
1
L s Lm
2
1L
2 m

1
Lm
2

Lr Lm

1
Lm
2

1
Lm
2

Ls Lm

1
Lm
2

0 ias
as

0 ibs
bs
0 ics d cs

0 iar dt ar
br
0 ibr


rr icr
cr

Lr Lm

1
Lm
2
1
Lm
2

as

bs
cs L s

ar L rs
br

cr

ias
i
bs
L sr ics

L r iar
ibr

icr

Ls Lm

1
Lm
2
1
Lm
2

cos m 120 cos m 120


cos m
L sr Lm cos m 120
cos m
cos m 120
cos m 120 cos m 120
cos m

cos m 120 cos m 120


cos m
T
L rs Lm cos m 120
cos m
cos m 120 L sr
cos m 120 cos m 120

cos m

Machine model
Combining. vas

rs
v 0
bs
vcs 0

var 0
vbr 0

vcr 0

rs

rs

rr

0
0

0
0

0
0

rr
0

0 ias
0 ibs
0 ics d L s

0 iar dt L rs
0 ibr

rr icr

ias
i
bs
L sr ics

L r iar
ibr

icr

It is here that we observe a difficulty that the stator-rotor and rotor-stator terms, Lsr and
Lrs, because they are functions of r, and thus functions of time, will also need to be
differentiated. Therefore differentiation of fluxes results in expressions like d dL i L di
dt dt
dt
The differentiation with respect to L, dL/dt, will result in time-varying
coefficients on the currents. This will make our set of state equations difficult to solve.
1
1

1
1

Lm

r
m
m
L

Lm

s
m
m

2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
L r Lm Lr Lm Lm L s Lm Ls Lm Lm
2
2
2
2
1
1
1L
1L
Lm Ls Lm
Lm Lr Lm
m
m
2

2
2
7

cos m 120 cos m 120


cos m
L sr Lm cos m 120
cos m
cos m 120
cos m 120 cos m 120
cos m

cos m 120 cos m 120


cos m
T

L rs Lm cos m 120
cos m
cos m 120 L sr
cos m 120 cos m 120

cos m