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SEMINAR ON PASSIVE & ACTIVE DESIGN

FOR E NERGY E FFICIENT B UILDINGS


25th August 2014
Hyatt Regency, Kota Kinabalu,Sabah

Passive Design The Key to


Building Energy Efficiency
I r . H . P. L o o i ( m e k t r i c o n @ g m a i l . c o m )
B.Eng (Hons), FIEM, Jurutera Gas

Part 1 Introduction to Passive Design

h t t p : / / w w w . j k r. g o v. m y / b s e e p /

SYNOPSIS

PASSIVE DESIGN measures are key considerations in the design of building for low energy
and environmental performances. The importance of Passive Design is underscored by its
precedence over Active Design measures in green and low energy building.
PASSIVE DESIGN measures (which are principally architectural in nature) aims to embed
features into a building which are intrinsically green and low energy in nature. Active
measures are design features which requires active intervention of building systems (such
as air conditioning, mechanical ventilation, lighting systems etc) which will contribute to
green and/or low energy performances. Current pressing requirements for green design and
low energy in building which are increasingly driven by mandatory building codes (e.g.
recent revision to the UBBL incorporating parts of MS1525) requires knowledge of Passive
Design as in the skill set of the design architect.
THIS PRESENTATION is structured into 5 short subsections
(1) Introduction to Passive Design;
(2) Building Thermal Envelope;
(3) Natural ventilation;
(4) Day-lighting;
(5) Case studies and simulation.
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SYNOPSIS TO PART 1 INTRODUCTION

THIS PRESENTATION introduces the topic of passive design in the following


progressive manner:
(1) Building Energy ?
(2) Low Energy Building
(3) Passive design and active design
(4) Passive building components and building energy
(5) Quantifying building components contribution

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BUILDING ENERGY

Typical Energy Use (kWh)

Typical Office Building

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BUILDING ENERGY

Kings Green Hotel,


Melaka (3 Star Hotel)

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RESIDENTIAL BUILDING ENERGY

What About Residential Buildings?


How do we measure Residential Building Energy?

In CETDEM study of around 2005, at least 55% of


energy use is attributed to fuel for transport.
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RESIDENTIAL BUILDING ENERGY

If we are only concerned with building energy, then we


should only focus on electricity use.

This is total Energy Use per family (middle income)


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RESIDENTIAL BUILDING ENERGY

But in many Malaysian home, if designed properly, no


aircond units are required.

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10 COMMERSIAL BUILDING ENERGY -- CONCLUSION


In Commercial buildings, we can conclude that building
energy comprise the following:
1. Air conditioning

= 0% - 40%

2. Lighting

= 8% - 20%

These are dependent


on building design.

3. Appliances (fridge, oven) etc = 10% - 30% This do not depend on


4. General power outlets

= 10% - 30%

building design.

For residential building a large part of building energy can


be attributed to life-style which may be due to socioeconomic, cultural and even geographic location in nature.
If is even possible for a residential building to be designed
without air conditioning.
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11 COMMERSIAL BUILDING ENERGY -- CONCLUSION


In Commercial buildings, we can conclude that building
energy comprise the following:
1. Air conditioning

= 45% - 60%

2. Lighting

= 15% - 25%

3. Utilities

= 10% - 30%

4. General power outlets

= 10% - 30%

These are dependent


on building design.
This do not depend on
building design.

It is possible to design a building which lessen energy use


of those components listed above. These building
components can be said to be intrinsic to the building
OR part of the building character.
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12 COMMERSIAL BUILDING ENERGY -- CONCLUSION


In Residential buildings, we can conclude that building
energy comprise the following (only for typical middle
class Malaysian family:
1. Air conditioning

= 45% - 60%

2. Lighting

= 15% - 25%

3. Utilities

= 10% - 30%

4. General power outlets

= 10% - 30%

These are dependent


on building design.

This do not depend on


building design.

It is possible to design a building which lessen energy us


of those components listed above. These building
components can be said to be intrinsic to the building
OR part of the building character.
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KeTTHA Low Energy Building (LEO)

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14 BUILDING ENERGY BENCHMARKS


Why do we need Building Energy Benchmarks ?
Building Energy Benchmarks are indicators of building performance
which is use as comparison between different building design (uniform
gauge for comparison).
Building performance benchmarks are important:
1.

Indication of building environmental quality which may be demanded by


the market forces.

2.

Benchmarks on
which regulatory requirement on building energy
performance may be mandated, example:

BEI (Building Energy Index) defined by GBI for compliance scoring in


the GBI environmental rating system.

OTTV (Overall thermal transfer value) of building which is a form of


building energy performance benchmark which is now mandatory in
some states

Building energy performance (BEI and/or OTTV) will increasingly be


method for
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15 BUILDING ENERGY BENCHMARKS

Levels

For Commercial Buildings the following benchmarks by GBI &


JKR-BSEEP:
Office BEI
per year

Hotel /
Resort, BEI
per year

Retail
Malls BEI/
year

Health care
BEI/year

Industrial
Building
BEI/year

Data
Centre
(PUE)

150kWh/m

200kWh/m

240kWh/m

200kWh/m

180kWh/m

1.9

140kWh/m

190kWh/m

225kWh/m

190kWh/m

150kWh/m

1.8

130kWh/m

175kWh/m

210kWh/m

175kWh/m

140kWh/m

1.7

120kWh/m

160kWh/m

195kWh/m

160kWh/m

130kWh/m

1.6

110kWh/m

150kWh/m

180kWh/m

150kWh/m

120kWh/m

1.5

100kWh/m

135kWh/m

160kWh/m

135kWh/m

110kWh/m

1.4

90kWh/m

120kWh/m

145kWh/m

120kWh/m

100kWh/m

1.3

90kWh/m

Low Energy Building (LEO) is any building performance, level 6


and below!
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16 BUILDING ENERGY BENCHMARKS


For Residential Buildings NO BEI benchmarks, BUT building
energy performance based on OTTV is practiced by GBI & JKRBSEEP:
Levels

GBI RNC Version 3 OTTV landed

GBI RNC Version 3 OTTV High rise

50W/m

50W/m

46W/m

46W/m

44W/m

42W/m

42W/m

38W/m

40W/m

34W/m

38W/m

30W/m

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18 COMPONENTS IN BUILDING ENERGY


Why do we need Building Energy Benchmarks ?
1. Air conditioning

= 45% - 60%

2. Lighting

= 15% - 25%

3. Utilities

= 10% - 30%

4. General power outlets

= 10% - 30%

These are dependent


on building design.
This do not depend on
building design.

Passive design features are features which are intrinsic to the building
(i.e. is an integral part or character of the building). Examples are
well insulated building,
orientation away from direct sun,
windows to allow natural day-light
Naturally ventilated building etc.

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19 BUILDING ENERGY COMPONENTS


Passive design features are features which are intrinsic to the building
(i.e. is an integral part or character of the building). Examples are
well insulated building,
orientation away from direct sun,
windows to allow natural day-light
Naturally ventilated building etc.
Active design features are features which are building systems (usually
mechanical and electrical in nature) which actively contributes to or
enhances the performance of a building (performance may include
energy or environmental quality). Examples are:
Air conditioning system
Artificial lighting
Mechanical ventilation
Lifts
Escalators etc.
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20 BUILDING ENERGY COMPONENTS


Services

Factors affecting kWh usage

Parameters in design

ACMV

Heat Transmission through walls/roof

Weather Data

Solar irradiance

OTTV, RTTV, Sun position & shading


calculation

Air Infiltration

Weather data

Human population/traffic

Time-based traffic

Lighting load

Human traffic, day light factor

Machine load

Occupancy Pattern

Utility
Human traffic

Occupancy Pattern

Day Lighting

Sun Position, glare control

Power/ Plug
Load

Human Traffic

Occupancy Pattern

Utility

Usage Pattern

Lighting

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21 WHAT AREA PASSIVE DESIGN FEATURES

Passive design features can be listed as the following design measures:


1. Building Orientation (sun path)
2. Building thermal envelope (OTTV)

3. Roof thermal envelope (RTTV)


4. Micro climate of surrounding (landscaping)
5. Naturally ventilated building
6. Natural day lighting by windows, daylighting system such as light
tube, light shelf etc.

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22

MS1525 AND PASSIVE DESIGN


MS1525 (now 3rd edition 2014) has
the following Parts
0. Introduction
1. Scope
2. Normative Reference
3. Terms and Definitions
4. Architectural
and
design strategy

passive

5. Building Envelope
6. Lighting
7. Electric power and distribution
8. Energy
management
control system

and

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23

MS1525 AND PASSIVE DESIGN


MS1525 Section 4 Architectural and
passive design strategy
1. Site planning & orientation
2. Daylighting
3. Faade design
4. Natural ventilation
5. Thermal insulation
6. Strategic landscaping and
7. Renewable
solar)

energy

(principally

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24

MS1525 AND PASSIVE DESIGN


MS1525 Section 5 Building
Envelope contains the following:
1. Concept of Overall Building
Thermal Transfer (OTTV)
2. Sun path and building orientation
3. Shadings
insolation

to

mitigate

solar

4. Daylighting
5. Roofs thermal performance
6. Roofs with skylights
7. Air leakage

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25 MS1525

Passive design features are can be listed as the following design


measures:
1. Building Orientation (sun path)
2. Building thermal envelope (OTTV)
3. Roof thermal envelope (RTTV)
4. Naturally ventilated building
5. Natural day lighting by windows, daylighting system such as light
tube, light shelf etc.

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20 March 2014

27 CASE STUDY TO QUANTIFY THE BLDG ENERGY


Building design features which contributes to building cooling energy
can be illustrated as follows:
Heat gain & solar heat
gain thro roof (RTTV)

Lighting
heat gain
Fresh Air
Intake

Electric
Motor
heat gain

People
heat gain Electric
Appliance
heat gain

Heat gain thro windows

Heat gain
thro walls
Air Infiltration (doors/
windows/ cracks)
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2014
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28 CASE STUDY TO QUANTIFY THE BLDG ENERGY


Case study attempts to find out how much is the contribution of various
building components
The Model:

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2014
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29 CASE STUDY TO QUANTIFY THE BLDG ENERGY


Building Cooling Energy

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2014
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30 CASE STUDY TO QUANTIFY B.E.

Some Conclusion

Building faade contributes to about 15% of cooling energy

Roof contribution is proportional to the ratio of roof space to total


built-up

Air intake or how leaky a building is contributes up to a


whopping 25% to building cooling energy.

Electrical equipment inside building contributes a major 30%.


This component unfortunately is usually not influence by building
designers but by the M&E engineer. However building designed
with minimal or less dependency on electrical equipment will be
have significant effect on building energy.

People or occupant only contribute from 15%-20% of B.E.

Understanding above and building usage pattern can assist


designers in building low energy building.
20 March
2014
25 t h Augus
t 2014

SEMINAR ON PASSIVE & ACTIVE DESIGN


FOR E NERGY E FFICIENT B UILDINGS
25th August 2014
Hyatt Regency, Kota Kinabalu,Sabah

Passive Design The Key to


Building Energy Efficiency
I r . H . P. L o o i ( m e k t r i c o n @ g m a i l . c o m )
B.Eng (Hons), FIEM, Jurutera Gas

PLANNING AN URBAN TRANSITION


BENCHMARKS
Part 1SUSTAINABILITY
Introduction
to Passive Design

T h a n k Yo u f o r Yo u r A t t e n t i o n