Sie sind auf Seite 1von 32

http://webstaff.kmutt.ac.th/~ekapon.

siw/EN
E428/Lectures/Lecture4.pptx.

ENE 428
Microwave Engineering
Lecture 4 Reflection and
Transmission at Oblique Incidence,
Transmission Lines
1
RS

Plane wave propagation in general


dielectrics
Assume lossless medium

The propagation directions


are ai , ar , and a t
The plane of incidence is
defined as the plane
containing both normal to the
boundary and the incident
waves propagation direction.
The angle of incidence i is
the angle the incident field
makes with a normal to the
boundary
RS

Polarizations of UPW obliquely


incident on the boundary (1)
Perpendicular polarization or transverse electric (TE)
polarization

E is normal to the plane


of incidence and tangential
to the boundary.
Only the x component
of the magnetic field is
tangential.
3
RS

Polarizations of UPW obliquely


incident on the boundary (2)
Parallel polarization or transverse magnetic (TM)
polarization

H is normal to the plane


of incidence and tangential
to the boundary.
Only the x component
of the electric field is
tangential.
4
RS

TE polarization
x

E E0i e j 1 z ' a y
i

E0i

e j 1z ' ( a x ' )

1
We can write
i

E E0i e j1 ( x sini z cosi ) a y


and
i

E0i

e j 1 ( x sin i z cosi ) ( cos i a x sin i a z )

5
RS

Reflected and transmitted fields for


TE polarization
Reflected fields
r

E E0r e j1 ( x sinr z cosr ) a y


r

E0r

e j 1 ( x sin r z cosr ) (cos r a x sin r a z )

Transmitted fields
t

E E0t e j2 ( x sint z cost ) a y


t

H
RS

E0t

e j 2 ( x sint z cost ) ( cos t a x sin t a z )


6

Snells laws of reflection and


refraction (1)
Tangential boundary condition for the electric field
i j x sin
r j x sin
t j x sin
at z = 0 E0e 1 i a y E0 e 1 r a y E0e 2 t a y

for this equality to hold,

1 x sin i 1 x sin r 2 x sin t


Snells law of reflection

Snells law of refraction


RS

i r

1 sin t or

2 sin i

n1 sin 1 n2 sin 2
7

Snells laws of reflection and


refraction (2)
the critical angle for total reflection
(i )critical

2
sin
1
1

If i cri, then it is total reflection and no power can be


transmitted, these fields are referred as evanescent waves.

8
RS

Reflection and transmission


coefficients for TE polarization (1)
From the electric fields B.C. with phases matched, we
have
E0i E0r E0t .

(1)

Tangential B.C. for the magnetic field considering


matched phase and equal incident and reflected angles
is
E0i E0r

cos i

E0t

cos t .

(2)
9

RS

Reflection coefficient for TE


polarization
Solving Eqs. (1) and (2) gets

2 cos i 1 cos t i
E
E0
2 cos i 1 cos t
r
0

or

TE

2 cos i 1 cos t

.
2 cos i 1 cos t

10
RS

Transmission coefficient for TE


polarization
Solving Eqs. (1) and (2) gets

22 cos i
E
E0i
2 cos i 1 cos t
t
0

or

TE
Notice that

22 cos i

.
2 cos i 1 cos t

TE 1 TE
11

RS

Ex2 A 2 GHz TE wave is incident at 30


angle of incidence from air on to a thick slab
of nonmagnetic, lossless dielectric with r =
16. Find TE and TE.

12
RS

Fields for TM polarization


Incident fields
i

E E0i e j1 ( x sini z cosi ) (cos i a x sin i a z )


i

E0i

1
Reflected fields

e j 1 ( x sini z cosi ) a y

E E0r e j1 ( x sinr z cosr ) (cos r a x sin r a z )


r

E0r

e j 1 ( x sin r z cosr ) a y

1
Transmitted fields
t

E E0t e j2 ( x sint z cost ) (cos t a x sin t a z )


t

RS

E0t

e j 2 ( x sin t z cost ) a y

13

Reflection and transmission


coefficients for TM polarization
Solving B.C.s gets

TM

2 cos t 1 cos i

2 cos t 1 cos i

TM

22 cos i

.
2 cos t 1 cos i

TM

cos i
(1 TM )
cos t

and

Notice that

14
RS

Total transmission for TM


polarization
Brewsters angle for total transmission

i BA sin

22 (22 12 )
22 12 12 22

For lossless, non-magnetic media, we have

BA sin

r1
1
r2
15

RS

Ex3 A uniform plane wave is incident from air onto glass at


an angle from the normal of 30. Determine the fraction of
the incident power that is reflected and transmitted for a)
and b). Glass has refractive index n2 = 1.45.
a) TM polarization

b) TE polarization

16
RS

Transmission lines (1)

Transmission lines or T-lines are used to guide propagation of EM


waves at high frequencies.

Examples:

Transmitter and antenna


Connections between computers in a network
Interconnects between components of a stereo system
Connection between a cable service provider and aTV set.
Connection between devices on circuit board

Distances between devices are separated by much larger order of


wavelength than those in the normal electrical circuits causing time
delay.

17
RS

Transmission lines (2)


Properties to address:

time delay
reflections
attenuation
distortion

18
RS

Distributed-parameter model
Types of transmission lines

19
RS

Distributed-parameter model
The differential segment of the transmission line

R = resistance per unit length


L= inductance per unit length
C= capacitor per unit length
G= conductance per unit length

RS

The series inductance L represents the total selfinductance of the two conductors,
and the shunt capacitance C is due to the close
proximity of the two conductors. The
series resistance R represents the resistance due
to the finite conductivity of the individual
conductors, and the shunt conductance G is due to
dielectric loss in the material between
20
the conductors. R and G, therefore, represent loss.

Telegraphists equations
General transmission lines equations:

v( z, t )
i( z, t )

i( z, t ) R ' L '
z
t
i ( z, t )
v( z, t )

v( z, t )G ' C '
z
t

21
RS

Telegraphists time-harmonic wave


equations
Time-harmonic waves on transmission lines

dV ( z )
( R ' j L ') I ( z )
dz
dI ( z )
(G ' jC ')V ( z )
dz
After arranging we have

d 2V ( z )
2V ( z ) 0
dz

where ( R ' j L ')(G ' jC ') j .


22
RS

Traveling wave equations for the


transmission line
Instantaneous form

v( z, t ) V0 e z cos(t z ) V0e z cos(t z )


i( z, t ) I 0 e z cos(t z ) I 0e z cos(t z )
Phasor form

V ( z ) V0 e z V0e z
I ( z ) I 0 e z I 0e z
23
RS

Lossless transmission line


lossless when R = 0 and G = 0

0
j j L ' C '
L 'C '

and

1
up

L 'C '
24

RS

Low loss transmission line (1)


low loss when R << L and G << C
1/ 2

j R ' j L ' (G ' jC ')1/ 2

1/ 2
1/ 2

R'
G'
j L ' C ' 1
1

L
'
j

C
'

Expanding 1 x in binomial series gives

x x2
1 x 1 ......
2 8

for x << 1
25

RS

Low loss transmission line (2)


Therefore, we get

1
C'
L'
(R '
G'
)
2
L'
C'
R'
1 G'
LC 1 (

)
8 C ' L '

26
RS

Characteristic impedance
Characteristic impedance Z0 is defined as the
the ratio of the traveling voltage wave
amplitude to the traveling current wave
amplitude.
V0
V0
Z0
I0
I0

or

RS

R ' j L '
Z0
.
G ' jC '

For lossless line,

L'
Z0
.
C'

27

Power transmission
Power transmitted over a specific distance is
calculated.
The instantaneous power in the +z traveling wave at
any point along the transmission line can be shown as
2
V
Pi ( z , t ) v( z , t )i ( z , t ) 0 e 2 z cos 2 (t z ).
Z0

The time-averaged power can be shown as


2
T
T
V
1
1

z
2
Pavg ( z ) Pi ( z , t )dt 0 e
cos
(t z )dt.

T0
Z0
T0

RS

2
V

Pavg
( z ) 0 e 2 z
Z0

W.

28

Power ratios on the decibel scale (1)


A convenient way to measure power ratios
Power gain (dB)
Pout
G (dB) 10 log(
)
Pin

dB

Power loss (dB)


Pin
attenuation(dB) 10 log(
) dB
Pout

1 Np = 8.686 dB
RS

29

Power ratios on the decibel scale (2)


Representation of absolute power levels is the
dBm scale
P
G(dBm ) 10log(
)
1mW

dBm

30
RS

Ex1 A 12-dB amplifier is in series with a 4-dB


attenuator. What is the overall gain of the circuit?

Ex2 If 1 W of power is inserted into a coaxial


cable, and 1 W of power is measured 100m down
the line, what is the lines attenuation in dB/m?

31
RS

Ex3 A 20 m length of the transmission line is


known to produce a 2 dB drop in the power
from end to end,
a)

what fraction of the input power does it reach the output?

b)

What fraction of the input power does it reach the midpoint of the
line?

c)

What is the attenuation constant?

32
RS