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# ENGINEERING MECHANICS

## 1 CONCURRENT FORCES IN A PLANE

1.2 Composition and Resolution of Forces
1.3 Equilibrium of Concurrent Forces in a Plane
1.4 Method of Projections

OBJECTIVES

## Students will be able to :

a) Add forces using polygon law of
forces and method of projections
b) Resolve a force into components
c) Equilibrium of Concurrent Forces in
a Plane using Polygon Law and
method of projections

In-Class Activities

Inquiry-Based Questions
Application of adding forces and Equilibrium
Polygon law
Resolution of a force using Parallelogram law
Resolution of a force into Rectangular Components
Method of Projections
Concept Questions
Group Problem Solving

APPLICATIONS

## There are four

concurrent cable forces
acting on the bracket.
How do you determine
the resultant force acting
on the bracket ?

APPLICATIONS

## For a spool of given

weight, what are the
forces in cables AB
and AC ?

APPLICATIONS (continued)

## For a given cable

strength, what is the
maximum weight
that can be lifted ?

APPLICATIONS (continued)

## For a given weight of

the lights, what are
the forces in the
cables? What size of
cable must you use ?

Composition of Forces:
Polygon Law of Forces

## The reduction of a given system of forces to the

simplest system that will be its equivalent is called
the problem of composition of forces.
Polygon law of forces: If a number of coplanar
concurrent forces are acting at a point in such a way
that they can be represented in magnitude and
direction by the sides of a polygon taken in order,
their resultant is represented in magnitude and
direction by the closing side of the polygon taken in
the opposite order.

continued;

## The resultant will not depend upon the

order in which the free vectors
representing the given forces are
If the given forces are all acting along
one line, the sides of the polygon of
forces will all lie along one line and the
geometric summation will be replaced
by the algebraic summation.

Equilibrium

## If the end of the last vector coincides

with the beginning of the first, the
resultant is equal to zero and the given
system of forces is in equilibrium.

Resolution of a Force

## The replacement of a single force by several

components which will be equivalent in action
to the given force is called the problem of
resolution of a force.
A single force is to be replaced by two
components is the one most commonly
encountered.
By using the parallelogram law, we can
resolve a given force into any two
components intersecting at a point on its line
of action.

RESOLUTION OF A FORCE

## Resolution of a force is breaking up a force

into components. It is kind of like using the
parallelogram law in reverse.

EXAMPLE 1

Given: R = 2000 N
35
25
Find: Magnitude of Forces

## and the angles P and

Q
Plan:
1. Draw parallelogram or triangle.
2. Apply sine law for finding P
and Q.

Example contd.
60
R sin 2000 sin 25
P

976N
sin
sin 60
R sin 2000 sin 35
Q

1325N
sin
sin 60

RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS

## We resolve forces into

components using the x and y axes
system
Each component of the force is
shown as a magnitude and a
direction.
The directions are based on the x and y axes.

## 1.3 Equilibrium of concurrent

forces in a plane

If a body known to be in
equilibrium is acted upon by
several concurrent, coplanar
forces, then these forces, or
rather their free vectors, when
closed polygon.

Redundant constraints

## Supports in excess of those

necessary and sufficient to
completely constrain the body in
the plane of the figure are called
redundant constraints.

Example 2

A weight Q=2500 N
hanging on a cable
is supported at point
B by a cable and a
boom which is
hinged at C.
Determine the
forces transmitted to
the mast at points A
and C.

EXAMPLE 2 (Contd.)

Given: Q = 2500 N
Find: Magnitudes of Axial

and the boom.
Plan:

## 1. Draw FBD at point B.

2. Draw the triangle of forces.
3. Use sine rule.

Example 2 Contd.

using sine rule:
Sc
Sb
Q

## sin 30 sin 35 sin 115

Q sin 35 2500 sin 35
Sc

2868N
sin 30
sin 30
Q sin 115 2500 sin 115
Sb

4532N
sin 30
sin 30

## The projections on the coordinate

axes of the resultant of a system of
concurrent forces acting in one plane
are equal to the algebraic sums of
the corresponding projections of the
components.

Resultant

The magnitude
and direction of
the resultant
computed from
the following
equations:

X 2 Y2

tan

Y
X

where
X X 1 X 2 ... X n
Y Y1 Y2 ... Yn
X i Fi cos
Yi Fi sin

Equilibrium Equations

The two
equations of
equilibrium
for a system
of concurrent
forces in a
plane are:

X 0
Y 0
i

## EQUILIBRIUM OF CONCURRENT FORCES

IN A PLANE Example 3

## This is an example of a 2-D or

coplanar force system. If the
whole assembly is in
equilibrium, then particle A is
also in equilibrium.
To determine the tensions in
the cables for a given weight
of the engine, we need to
learn how to draw a free body
diagram and apply equations
of equilibrium.

## THE WHAT, WHY AND HOW OF A

FREE BODY DIAGRAM (FBD)

Free Body Diagrams are one of the most important things for
you to know how to draw and use.
What ? - It is a drawing that shows
all external forces acting on the
particle.
Why ? - It helps you write the
equations of equilibrium used to
solve for the unknowns (usually
forces or angles).

How ?

## 1. Imagine the particle to be isolated

or cut free from its surroundings.
2. Show all the forces that act on the
particle.
Active forces: They want to move the
particle.

## Reactive forces: They tend to resist the

motion.
3. Identify each force and show all knownA
magnitudes and directions. Show all
unknown magnitudes and / or directions as
variables .
FBD at A

EXAMPLE 3 Contd.

## Write the scalar EofE:

+ Fx = TB cos 30 TD = 0

+ Fy = TB sin 30 2.452 kN = 0
Solving the second equation gives:

## Note : Engine mass = 250 Kg

TB = 4.90 kN
From the first equation, we get:
TD = 4.25 kN
FBD at A

EXAMPLE 4

## Given: Sack A weighs 20 lb.

and geometry is as
shown.
Find: Forces in the cables and
weight of sack B.
Plan:
1. Draw a FBD for Point E.
2. Apply EofE at Point E to solve
for the unknowns (TEG & TEC).
3. Repeat this process at C.

EXAMPLE (continued)

## A FBD at E should look like the one

to the left. Note the assumed
directions for the two cable tensions.
The scalar EofE are:
+ Fx = TEG sin 30 TEC cos 45 = 0

## + Fy = TEG cos 30 TEC sin 45 20 lbs = 0

Solving these two simultaneous equations for the
two unknowns yields:
TEC = 38.6 lb

TEG = 54.6 lb

EXAMPLE (continued)

## Now move on to ring C.

A FBD for C should look
like the one to the left.
The scalar EofE are:
Fx = 38.64 cos 45 (4/5) TCD = 0
Fy = (3/5) TCD + 38.64 sin 45 WB = 0
Solving the first equation and then the second yields
TCD = 34.2 lb

and WB = 47.8 lb .

## A right circular roller

of weight W rests on
a smooth horizontal
plane and is held in
position by inclined
bar as shown. Find
the tension in the
bar and the vertical
reaction at B.

## Group Problem Solving

(Contd.)

Given: W
Find: Magnitude of Axial

## Force in the bar and

the vertical reaction
at B.
Plan:

## Given: The car is towed at constant

speed by the 600 N force
and the angle is 25.
Find:

Plan:

and AC.