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MODULE 4

Electricity and
Magnetism
Division Training of Grade 9 Teachers
Teaching Physics in Grade 9 Science
July 31, 2014
Nueva Ecija High School

What is Electricity?
Electricity is energy
transported by
the motion of electrons
**We do not make electricity, we
CONVERT other energy sources into
electrical energy**
Conversion is the name of the game

MODULE 4 ACTIVITY 1
ITS MORE POWER IN THE PHILIPPINES

Identify the location of


some power plants in
the Philippines map.
Determine the region in
which the power plant
belongs.

RENEWABLE
Hydroelectric
Pantabangan - Hydroelectric Power
Plant(112MW) Region III

GEOTHERMAL
Tiwi Geothermal Power Plant,
Albay(275MW) Region V
Leyte Geothermal Production Field,
Ormoc Leyte(700MW)

SOLAR
SaCaSol I , Negros
Occidental(22MW)

WIND POWER PLANT


Bangui Wind Farm
Ilocos(24.75MW)
Burgos Windmill, Ilocos(87MW)
underconstruction

NON-RENEWABLE- COAL
Calaca Coal Power Plant, Batangas (650MW) Region IV-A
Sual, Pangasinan (1294MW) Region I

DIESEL
Bohol Diesel Power Plant(11MW) Region - VII
Panay Diesel Power Plant(74.9MW) Region VI

NUCLEAR
Bataan Nuclear Power Plant(Completed but never
fueled) Region III

Watch video of BPP

Activity 2-Tracing Power


Trace the path of electricity from the
generating station, transmission station
and residential areas.
Differentiate between a step-up
transformer and a step down transformer
Identify specific areas where step-up
transformer and step down transformer
are utilized

Generation and Transmission of


Electricity to Household Consumption

Generation and Transmission of


Electricity to Household Consumption

1. Steam is generated at the electricity


plant by the burning of fossil fuels- or at
a nuclear or hydroelectric plant.

2. The steam powers a turbine w/c spins a


huge magnet inside a copper wire. Heat
energy converts to M.E. which then
converts to E.E. in the generator

Generator- a machine that converts


mechanical energy into electrical
energy

3. Electricity flows from the power plant


through wires to the step up transformer.
The transformer raises the voltage so it can
travel long distance- it is raised to as high as
756,000 volts

Step-up
transformer
increases the
voltage

4. The electric current then runs through


the power lines to the substation
transformer where voltage is lowered to
between 2000 and 13,000 volts

5. Electricity is taken through the lines to a


pole transformer- or a transformer box if
underground-and voltage is lowered again to
120 or 220 or 240 volts

6. From there electricity comes into your


home through the service box, where your
meter is located to measure how much you
use. Wires take electricity around your
home, powering your lights and all your
other electrical appliances

Electrical Cost

How is the cost of electrical


energy consumption computed?
Formulas to be
considered:

E= Pt

where;

P = IV where;
P= power (Watts)
I = current
(Amperes)
V= voltage (Volts)

E =energy used (kwh)


P =power (Watts)
t =time (seconds)

The amount of energy consumed in 1


month is obtained by subtracting the
last months reading from the total
as read from an electric meter.

Sample Problem # 1
All the computers in the ICT room are in use
for 5 hours everyday and dissipate 8.3 Kw.
How much energy is used in a day?
Given: P = 8.3 Kw
t = 5 hours
Find : Energy used

E = Pt
= ( 8.3 Kw ) ( 5 hrs )
E = 41.5 kWh

Sample Problem # 2
How much does it cost to operate a 400 W
television for 8 hours if electrical energy costs
6.88 pesos per kWh ( which includes both the
generation and transmission charges)
E = Pt
Given: P = 0.400 kW
= ( 0.400Kw ) ( 8 hrs )
t = 8 hours
E = 3.2 kWh
Find : cost to
operate

Cost = (3.2kWh) (6.88


pesos/kWh
Cost = 22.02 pesos

Example rice cooker 1 liter

E=PxT
= 450watts x 1.5 hrs/day
Convert 450W to kW
Since 1kW = 1,000W
P= 450W x 1 kW/1000W = 0.45kW
T = 1.5hrs/day x 30days/month = 45hrs/month
E= P x T
E = (0.45kW) ( 45Hrs)

E= 20.25 kWh/month

Energy used= Power(W) x


E=(kWh) 1kW = 1000 watts

Time(s)

Activity on Electrical Consumption


1. An electric fan that draws
ANSWERS:
4.5 A current is connected
to a 220-V source, how
1. P=IV
much power does it
= 900 Watts/
produce?
0.9 kW
2. If a 100-W light bulb is
used for 8 hours each day
2. 16 kWh( P5)
for 20 days in a month.
= 80 pesos
What will be the cost of the
consumed energy?
( 5 pesos /kWh )

Sample Billing Info of a certain


company:
Bill Date
Billing Period
Due Date
Total kWh
Total Current
Amount

:
:
:
:

29Oct-2010
29Sept-2010 to 29Oct-2010
07Nov -2010
419

: P 4, 321.35

Source: http://www.meralco.com.ph

Billing Summary
BILL SUBGROUP
Generation

SUBTOTAL

PERCENTAGE

1, 827.01

42.3 %

Transmission

408.53

9.5 %

System Loss

227.73

5.3 %

1, 367.00

31.6 %

Subsidies

60.42

1.4 %

Government
Taxes

410.59

9.5 %

20.07

0.5%

0.00

0.0%

4, 321.35

100 %

Distribution
( Meralco)

Universal Charges
Other Charges
TOTAL

How does magnetism produce


electricity?
Most energy sources such as
oil, diesel, heat from the
earths interior are used to
make turbines work, which
are then connected to a
device called a generator
which converts mechanical
energy into electrical energy.

Activity 3 LIGHT ME UP
Objectives:
Build a model of a simple generator
Discuss how electricity is generated from
the interaction between coils and magnets
Relate the motion of a simple electric
generator to the motion of an actual
generator being used in a real-life electric
power plant.

Materials
magnet
coil of wire
LED light
Wooden stand

Guide Questions:
1. Why did the LED light up when the
magnet is turned around the axis?
2. Why is it possible to produce
electricity without an energy
source?
3. In electric power plants, turbines
are connected to generators which
are composed of magnets and coils.
How are turbines used to produce
electricity?

Answers:
1. The LED light up because of the current
induced in the coils of copper wire due to
the changing magnetic field.
2. A changing magnetic field induces current
in coils of wire. This is also known as
electromagnetic induction.

Answers:
Turbines are connected to
generators consisting of large
magnets and conductors.
Turbines are rotated
either mechanically or by
means of steam from boiling
water which is heated by the
fuel source. Turbines produce
a changing magnetic field
inside the generator which in
turn produces electricity.
3.

References:
Pople, Stephen (1996) Coordinated Science
Physics, Oxford University Press, Oxford.2nd ed.
Renuga (2011) Lower Secondary Physics,
Secondary 1 & 2 Science. Fairfield Book
Publishers, Singapore
McDougall Littell (2005) Science. Houghton
Mifflin Company. Evanston IL
http://www.meralco.com.ph
http://www.youtube.com

POST-TEST
1. In which of the following
units is electrical consumption
measured by electric
companies for our household
consumption ?
A.Kilowatt
B.Volt
C.Megawatt
D.Kilowatt hour

2.
Transformers are used to
raise
the
voltage
along
substations and lower it for
residential consumption. What
kind of transformers is used to
raise voltage?
A.Step-up
B.Step-down
C.Neither of the two
D.Both

3. Alexia turned on a lamp switch in her


room. Which of the following is the
correct path of electrical power that
can be traced back to the source?
A. Power plant---transmission substations--distribution substations---residences
B. Transmission substations---power plants--residences---distribution substations
C. Residences---distribution substations--power plants---transmission substations
D. Distribution substations---transmission
substations---power plants----residences

4. Who among the following


scientists discovered the
relationship between electricity
and magnetism?
A.Andrei Marie Ampere
B.Michael Faraday
C.Hans Christian Oersted
D.Alessandro Volta

5. What energy transformation


takes place in a generator?
A.Electrical to mechanical
B.Heat to mechanical
C.Mechanical to electrical
D.Chemical to mechanical

Thank you very


much for
listening!!!!
ANALYN N. DE GUZMAN
DAISYLYN C. ORTIZ
Presenter