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Learning Defined: _______________________

________________________________________
Conditioning: a kind of learning that involves

associations between environmental stimuli and


responses

Types of Conditioning
Classical Conditioning: (Pavlov)
The organism learns to associate two stimuli
One produces a response that originally was only
produced by the other
Classic example of dog/bell and salivation

Unconditioned Stimulus (US): elicits the

unconditioned response ____________


Unconditioned Response (UR): response which is

automatically produced _______________

Conditioned Stimulus (CS): originally neutral

stimulus that elicits a behavior after being paired


with a US ______________
Conditioned Response (CR): response elicited by

the conditioned stimulus ____________________

Acquisition: phase of Classical conditioning when

the _____________________________________

Extinction: repeat the conditioned stimulus

without the unconditioned stimulus over time and


the conditioned response ____________________

Spontaneous Recovery: after a response has been

extinguished it may_______________________
________________________________________|
_______________________________

Higher Order Conditioning: pairing a neutral

stimulus with the conditioned stimulus will create


another conditioned stimulus, _______________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
______________________________

Stimulus generalization: after a stimulus becomes

a conditioned stimulus for some response, other,


similar stimuli may produce ___________________

Stimulus discrimination: one learns to realize the

differences between similar stimuli

Anticipatory Nausea and Vomiting


Classically conditioned response
__________________(US)
______________ (UR)
_____________________(CS)
________________________(CR)
__________________________________________
ANV patients dont respond well to anti-nausea
drugs
Responsive to some behavioral treatments

Garcias research found that there may be

differential reactions to classical conditioning


_______________________seem to be particularly

sensitive to learning.
May be evolutionarily determined.

Operant Conditioning/Instrumental Learning

Behavior is dependent on its consequences

Thorndike: Studied cats to understand learning

behaviors
Law of Effect: a satisfying result _____________

_________________________________________

B.F. Skinner: all behavior is explained by looking

outside the individual. People (and animals) tend


to repeat behaviors which have positive
consequences; decrease behaviors which have
negative consequences

Three types of consequences


Neutral consequence: __________________

______________________________________
Reinforcement: anything which will make a
response ____________________________
Punishment: anything which will make a response
_____________________________________

Primary Reinforcers: satisfy biological needs:

_______________________________________
________________________________________
Secondary Reinforcers: satisfy through association

with primary reinforcers: ___________________


__________________________________________

Punishments: presentation or removal of a

stimulus _______________ the likelihood of a


response
Positive punishment: something occurs (a stimulus

presented) to decrease a behavior


___________________
Negative punishment: something is removed to

decrease a behavior _______________________

Stimulus Added

Stimulus Removed

Response
Increase

positive
reinforcement

negative
reinforcement

Response
Decrease

positive
punishment

negative
punishment

Reinforcement or Punishment which occurs

immediately after a behavior has the ________


_______________________________________
Another Contemporary Example

Learning Schedules
Continuous: reward/punishment occurs each time

the behavior occurs


Intermittent/Partial: reward/punishment occurs

when a response occurs only some of the time

Ratio Schedules: deliver reinforcement after a

certain number of responses have occured


Interval Schedules: reinforcement after a certain

amount of time has passed and the desired


behavior has occurred

Fixed ratio schedules: reinforcement after a fixed

number of responses ____________


Variable ratio schedules: reinforcement after some

average number of responses _____________

Fixed interval: reinforcement occurs after a fixed

amount of time has passed since the past reinforcer


________________
Variable interval: reinforcement occurs if a variable

amount of time has passed since the previous


reinforcer _______________________
________________

For a response to persist, it should be reinforced

________________, making the response more


difficult to extinguish

Shaping: reinforcing behavioral tendencies in a

desired direction. Uses successive approximation-reinforce responses that are increasingly similar to
the desired behavior

Social Cognitive Theories of Learning

Observational Learning: believe there is a higher

level cognitive process to how we learn, impacts


attitudes, beliefs and expectations

Banduras Four Key Components to Observational

Learning
Attention: _____________________________

_______________________________________
Retention: have the capacity to store/retrieve what
you have observed
Reproduction: behaviorally imitate what has been
stored in memory
Motivation: ________________________________
___________________________________________

Lessons from Lassie Study (Sprafkin et.al. 1975)


Observational learning can have _____________
Children who were exposed to media that

demonstrated altruistic behavior towards animals


were ________________________________________

Research on Video Games and their Influence

(Bushman)
Playing violent video games increases violent behavior

in __________________________
Findings consistent in experimental and
nonexperimental studies
Exposure to violent content leads to both physiological
and cognitive reactions
Appears to ________________________________