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H-02 Hydrostatic Pressure

Experiment Data
a = 10 cm
Mass (gram)
50
70
90
110
130
150
170
190
210
230
250
270
290
310
330
350
370

b = 7.5 cm d = 10 cm L = 27,5 cm
FILLING TANK
Height of water (mm)
47
56
64
71
76
82
88
93
98
104
109
113
118
123
128
133
137

Mass (gram)
50
70
90
110
130
150
170
190
210
230
250
270
290
310
330
350
370

DRAINING TANK
Height of water (mm)
547
56
63
71
76
82
88
93
98
104
109
113
118
123
128
133
137

H-02 Hydrostatic Pressure


Data Result Graph h vs F
Partially 10090

Data Result a & b

80

Partially Submerged

70

Experiment

Theory

60

RE

2,306

2,72

75%

-0,01

-0,042

15,44%

50

Series1

40
30
20

Fully Submerged
Experiment

Theory

10

RE

-204,97

-181,81

12,73%

41,86

40,909

2,34%

Fully

10

20

200
150
100

Series1

50
0
0

10

15

H-02 Hydrostatic Pressure


Analysis
Experiment : in this
experiment the thing that
differnet from the modul that
the measurement alredy given
Result :
Theres High RE in the Linear
Equation
Linear increasing of the graph

Error :
Human
Reading

Conclusion
We can get the formula 3
and 5 from simplifying the
sigma Moment from
formula 1 and 2
The increase of the mass
will equal to the increase of
the water, because if we
add the mass we need to
add the water to neutralize
the moment caused by
mass

H-03 Free Floating Body


Experiment Data
SHEAR LOAD

TRANSVESAL LOAD

200

250

300

RIGHT ANGLE

LEFT ANGLE

15

2,25

2,25

30

4,5

4,5

45

6,75

6,75

60

8,5

8,5

15

2,25

2,5

30

4,75

45

7,25

7,25

60

9,5

9,5

15

2,5

30

5,25

5,75

45

60

10,5

10,5

H-03 Free Floating Body


Data Result
Shear Load

GM Experiment (mm)

GM Theory (mm)

R2

RE

200

87,2

72,45

20,40%

0,0819

250

79,6

84,66

5,97%

1,0221

300

71,8

44,83

60,16%

4,009

H-03 Free Floating Body


Analysis
Experiment:
Submerged volume = Inertia
Hanging the ponton = Center
gravity

Result: the value of GM


from 200 to 300 is
decreasing
Error:
Human
Reading

Conclusion
GM depeng Center Gravity,
Center gravity depend shear
load position
GM depend on the volume of
submerged pontoon, the
volume depend on shear load
position
GM is equal to the gap
between floating point
metacentrum point with the
distance from the pontoon
GM>0 or GM=0 is stable

H-06 Flow Through The Orifice


Experiment Data

1. Constant Head
Diameter D
(mm)
3
3
3
3
3
6
6
6
6
6

Head h
(mm)
400
380
360
340
320
400
380
360
340
320

Volume Water V
(l)
132000
132000
130000
122000
125000
535000
532000
530000
515000
490000

Time T
(sec)
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

Head h1
(mm)
400
380
360
340
320
400
380
360
340
320

Head h2 (mm)

T (sec)

380
360
340
320
300
380
360
340
320
300

0
26
52
80
110
0
7
13
20
28

2. Variable Head
Diameter D
(mm)
3
3
3
3
3
6
6
6
6
6

Q (l/s)

Q^2

13200
13200
13000
12200
12500
53500
53200
53000
51500
49000

174240000
174240000
169000000
148840000
156250000
2862250000
2830240000
2809000000
2652250000
2401000000

H-06 Flow Through The Orifice


Experiment Data

3. Coefficient of Flow Rate

Diam
eter D
(mm)
3

Head
h
(mm)
400
380
360
340
320

400
380
360
340
320

Coordi
nate
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y

1
(m
m)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2
(mm)

3
(mm)

4
(mm)

5
(mm)

6
(mm)

7
(mm)

8
(mm)

50
4.5
50
6
50
7
50
7
50
6
50
5.5
50
6.5
50
6
50
5.5
50
6

100
8.5
100
9
100
9
100
10
100
9.5
100
7.5
100
8
100
8
100
10
100
10

150
11
150
12
150
13
150
12
150
12
150
10
150
11.5
150
8.5
150
11.5
150
13

200
14
200
15
200
17
200
18
200
17.5
200
16
200
15.5
200
17.5
200
18
200
20.5

250
16
250
19
250
16.5
250
22
250
22.5
250
17.5
250
15
250
19
250
20
250
21.5

300
21
300
21
300
24.5
300
26
300
26
300
20
300
19
300
20
300
24
300
24

350
25
350
25
350
27.5
350
27.5
350
27
350
20
350
25
350
28
350
29
350
29

H-06 Flow Through The Orifice


Coefficient of Flow Rate
D = 3mm , h = 400

D = 3 mm , h = 360 mm

D = 3mm , h = 380 mm

D = 3mm , h = 340 mm

H-06 Flow Through The Orifice


Coefficient of Flow Rate
D = 3 mm , h = 320 mm

D = 6 mm , h = 380 mm

D = 6 mm , h = 400 mm

D = 6 mm , h = 360 mm

H-06 Flow Through The Orifice


Coefficient of Flow Rate
D = 6 mm , h = 340 mm

3 mm

H
400
380
360
340
320

D = 6 mm , h = 320 mm

b
0.0938
0.1115
0.1133
0.0953
0.0891

Cv
1.632
1.497
1.485
1.62
1.675

b
0.0862
0.0869
0.0912
0.0937
0.0907

Cv
1.703
1.7
1.656
1.633
1.66

6 mm

H
400
380
360
340
320

H-06 Flow Through The Orifice


Constant Head
D = 3 mm

D = 6 mm

H-06 Flow Through The Orifice


Variable Head
D = 3 mm

D = 6 mm

H-06 Flow Through The Orifice

Result Analysis
Cv average = 1.6261 , RE = 65.93%
Cd average = 0.95 , RE = 2.55 %

Error Analysis
Human Error

Conclusion
Coefficient of flow is found from the result of Cv and Cd in using the 3 mm and 6 mm hole

H-08 Friction in Pipe


Experiment Data

Data Observation
Water

Mercury

Volume (ml)

Time (sec)

Manometer

Manometer

Reading (mm)

Reading (mm)

Water

Mercury Water

Mercury

223

205

282

262

21.5

33

15

233

191

292

252

36

48

15

243

177

302

242

56

56

15

253

166

312

231

62

64

15

263

153

322

221

68

76

15

273

140

332

211

75

82

15

283

129

342

201

79

94

15

H-08 Friction in Pipe


Experiment Data

Water Manometer
h1

h2

hf

Re

223

205

0.018

0.0000014

0.000007065

0.202878037

0.051429199

744.0514814

233

191

0.042

0.0000024

0.000007065

0.33970276

0.042801448

1245.853643

243

177

0.066

0.0000037

0.000007065

0.528426516

0.027795984

1937.994556

253

166

0.087

0.0000041

0.000007065

0.585043642

0.029891661

2145.63683

263

153

0.11

0.0000045

0.000007065

0.641660769

0.031418759

2353.279104

273

140

0.133

0.0000050

0.000007065

0.707714084

0.031227936

2595.528424

283

129

0.154

0.0000053

0.000007065

0.745458835

0.032589726

2733.956606

0.087142857

3.78571E-06

0.000007065

0.535840663

0.035307816

1965.185806

Average

Mercury Manometer
h1

h2

hf

Re

282

262

0.272

0.000011

0.000007065

1.556970984

0.013195176

5710.162532

292

252

0.544

0.000016

0.000007065

2.264685067

0.012473565

8305.690956

302

242

0.816

0.000007065

2.642132578

0.013746378

9689.972782

0.000007065

3.01958009

0.01420817

11074.25461

0.000007065

3.585751356

0.012563402

13150.67735

0.000007065

3.86883699

0.012929173

14188.88872

0.000007065

4.435008257

0.011465064

16265.31145

0.000007065

3.05328076

0.012940132

11197.8512

1.86667E05
2.13333E312

231

1.1016

05
2.53333E-

322

221

1.3736

05
2.73333E-

332

211

1.6456

05
3.13333E-

342

201

Average

1.9176

05

1.09577

2.15714E-

1429

05

H-08 Friction in Pipe


Linear Regression log hf log V2

Water Manometer

Mercury Manometer

H-08 Friction in Pipe


Linear Regression log f log Re

Water Manometer

Mercury Manometer

H-08 Friction in Pipe


Linear Regression log hf log V

Water Manometer

Mercury Manometer

H-08 Friction in Pipe

Data Result

Velocity of output water per second water manometer = 0.535840663 m/s


Velocity of output water per second mercury manometer = 3.05328076 m/s
R value of water manometer = 0.991
R value of mercury manometer = 0.891
Reynolds Number = 21877.616 (turbulent flow)
Vc = 5.97 m/s
Relative error water manometer = 5.9 %
Relative error mercury manometer = 6.91 %

Error
Human
Conclusion
Friction in pipe with an average speed can cause changes in pressure