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Research Proposal

Ram Krishna Rathore, 8103601060, MECH109

An Optimal Control Model for Load Shifting in a Water Pumping


Scheme with Maximum Demand Charges

Problem
Little evidence of closed-loop optimal control for load shifting with TOU and MD
charges.
Table: Optimal control based load-shifting.
Reference

Publication

Open-loop

IEEE

Applied Energy

[7]
Gomez-Villalva, Ramos

IEEE

[8]
Middelberg, Zhang, Xia

TBP

[9]
Zhang, Xia

IEEE

[5]
Ashok, Banerjee,
[6]
Ashok

Closed-loop

X
X

TOU Charges

MD Charges

X
X

[10]
Little, McCrodden

J. of Water
Resources Planning and Mgmt.

[11]
Jowitt, Germanopoulos

J. of Water
Resources Planning and Mgmt.

[12]
McCormick, Powell,

J. of Water
Resources Planning and Mgmt.

[13]
Nitivattananon, Sadowski, Quimpo

J. of Water
Resources Planning and Mgmt.

[14]
Powell, Sterling

J. of Water
Resources Planning and Mgmt.

X
(daily feedback only)

X
X
X
X

Research Design
Hypothesis:
A closed-loop optimal control model can be used for load shifting
problems in industrial applications; including customers that are
charged on TOU and/or MD.
Objective:
Determine the closed-loop load shifting (scheduling) strategy that
yields the maximum potential of the cost saving under both TOU
and MD charges for a specific application.
Case study:
Rietvlei water purification plant; charged on both TOU and MD.

Research Design - Activities


Open-loop

Closed-loop

Define open-loop
control models

Simulate and
compare

Convert to closedloop (MPC) models

Simulate and
compare

TOU based
MD based
Combined

TOU based
MD based
Combined

TOU based
MD based
Combined

TOU based
MD based
Combined

Expect MD charges to play the most significant role in optimization.

Case study Rietvlei purification


Randwater
R 2.98/kL

Randwater
R 2.98/kL

Garsfontein (R3)
60 Ml

Klapperkop (R2)
120 Ml

Valve (V1)

Boreholes
10 ML/day
R 0.30/kL
175 kW
10 ML/day/pump

OB1
OB2
Rietvlei
25ML/day
R 1.03/kL

Focus of the
case study

300 kW
22 ML/day/pump

Rietvlei
20ML/day
R 1.03/kL

OB3

Boreholes (R4)
1.1ML

275 kW
10 ML/day/pump

On 30%
Off 15%

K1

G1

On 40%
Off 20%

On 65%
Off 45%

K2

G2

On 50%
Off 35%

back-up

K3

G3

IB1

IB2

IB3

IB4

Ranges from 37 to 75 kW motors


Rietvlei Dam

back-up
Rietvlei
Purification Plant

Fountain
Rietvlei Fountain
5 ML/day
Gravitational flow

Rietvlei (R1)
2 ML (70% of total capacity)

IB5

Rietvlei Purification
40 ML/day
Gravitational flow

Klapperkop Pumps - Indicative


In peak and standard Times (6h00 to 22h00)
Integrated maximum demand intervals
Undesirable
maximum demand
set for the month

Current Schedule
K2
K1

Option 1 Many short periods on pump K2.


K2
k1

Lower integrated
maximum demand

Option 2 Short overlaps between pumps.


K2
K1

6h

7h

8h

9h

10h

11h

12h

13h

14h

Preliminary Results

Rudimentary tuning of current control strategy i.e. narrowing the K2 switching band.
Table: Monthly costs with MD savings.
TOU

MD

MD/TOU

New MD

Saving on
MD

Summer

R 75k

R 60k

80%

R 49k

18% (R 11k)

Winter

R 134k

R 60k

45%

R 49k

18% (R 11k)

Overall
Saving
8%

6%

Formulation
T = total time interval e.g. 1440 minutes (for a day).
N = total number of pumps.
P = kW rating of each pump.
c = kWh costs function.
Cmax = Maximum demand charge e.g. R 50/kW.
u =state of pump e.g. 1 is on, and 0 is off.
I = Number of maximum demand intervals.

TOU based objective function


T

Min. utn pn ct
t 1 n 1

MD based objective function

Min.Max.iI1

i NI

t NI i 1 1 n 1

tn

pn Cmax

Some constraints
N

Inflow Linitial Fn Lm in

Reservoir must not get empty.

n 1
N

Inflow Linitial Fn Lm ax

Reservoir must not overflow.

n 1

F
n 1

F
n4

At least one of the Klapperkop pumps must run.

At least one of the Garsfontein pumps must run.

Major Challenge
MD Optimization is not linear.
Consider near-optimal approaches to linearize e.g.
Maximum demand limit [new reference, Coulbeck, Orr].
Reduced gradient algorithm penalty towards end [14].
Continuous variable [10] trying to adapt to this application.
Others?
Alternatively, consider non-linear techniques e.g.
Dynamic programming.
Matlab fminmax struggling to limit x to binary values.
Matlab fmincon struggling to limit x to binary values.
Matlab fgaolattain - TODO

Neural networks.
Others?

References
Optimal control based load-shifting.
[5] S. Ashok, R. Banerjee, An optimization model for industrial load management, IEEE Transactions on Power
Systems, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 879-884, Nov. 2001.
[6] S. Ashok, Peak-load management in steel plants, Applied Energy, vol. 83, no 5, pp 413-424, May 2006.
[7] E. Gomez-Villalva, A. Ramos, Optimal energy management of an industrial consumer in liberalized markets,
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 716-723, May 2003.
[8] A. Middelberg, J. Zhang, X. Xia, An optimal control model for load shifting with application in energy
management of a colliery, To be published.
[9] J. Zhang, X. Xia, Best switching time of hot water cylinder switched optimal control approach, Proc. of the
8th IEEE AFRICON Conference, Namibia, 26-28 Sept. 2007.
[10] K. W. Little, B. J. McCrodden, Minimization of raw water pumping costs using MILP, Journal of Water
Resources Planning and Management, vol. 115, no. 4, pp. 511522, July 1989.
[11] W. Jowitt, G. Germanopoulos, Optimal pump scheduling in water-supply networks, Journal of Water
Resources Planning and Management, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 406-422, July 1992.
[12] G. McCormick, R.S. Powell, Optimal pump scheduling in water supply systems with maximum demand
charges, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, vol. 129, no. 5, pp. 372-379, Sept. 2003.
[13] V. Nitivattananon, E.C. Sadowski, R.G. Quimpo, Optimization of water supply system operation, Journal of
Water Resources Planning and Management, vol. 122, no. 5, pp. 374384, Sept. 1996.
[14] G. Yu, R.S. Powell, M.J.H. Sterling, Optimised pump scheduling in water distribution systems, Journal of
Optimization Theory and Applications, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 463488, Dec. 1994.