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Printing

Presented To:
Dr. Harinder Singh
&
Final Year
Chemical Engineering

Presented By:
Krati Gupta
Love Kumar Omar
Rajat Agarwal
Salim Ansari
Kundan Sukase
Nitin Kumar

Introduction

3D printing is a form of additive manufacturing technology where a three


dimensional object is created by laying down successive layers of
material.

It is also known as Additive manufacturing.

3D printing is achieved using an additive process, where successive


layers of material are laid down in different shapes.

History

The technology for printing physical 3D objects from digital data was first
developed by Charles Hull in 1984.

He named the technique as Stereo lithography and obtained a patent for


the technique in 1986.

By the end of 1980s, other similar technologies such as Fused Deposition


Modeling (FDM) and Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) were introduced.

In 1993, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) patented another


technology, named "3 Dimensional Printing techniques", which is similar to
the inkjet technology used in 2D Printers.

In 1996, three major products, "Genisys" from Stratasys, "Actua 2100"


from 3D Systems and "Z402" from Z Corporation, were introduced.

In 2005, Z Corp. launched a breakthrough product, named Spectrum Z510,


which was the first high definition color 3D Printer in the market.

Terminology

Additive manufacturing - refers to technologies that create objects through


sequential layering.

Rapid prototyping - is a group of techniques used to quickly fabricate a scale model


of a physical part or assembly using three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD)
data.

Subtractive processes - removal of material by methods such as cutting or drilling.

Stereolithography was defined by Charles W. Hull as a "system for generating threedimensional objects by creating a cross-sectional pattern of the object to be formed"

3D Printable Models

3D printable models may be created


with a computer aided design package
or via 3D scanner.

The manual modeling process of


preparing geometric data for 3D
computer graphics is similar to plastic
arts such as sculpting.

3D scanning is a process of analyzing


and collecting data of real object; its
shape and appearance and builds
digital, three dimensional models.

Slicing

Printing

To perform a print, the machine reads the design from 3D printable file (STL
file).

STL file STereoLithography

It lays down successive layers of liquid, powder, paper or sheet material to


build the model from a series of cross sections.

These layers, which correspond to the virtual cross sections from the CAD
model, are joined or automatically fused to create the final shape.

Printer resolution describes layer thickness and X-Y resolution in dpi (dots per
inch), or micrometers.

X-Y resolution is comparable to that of laser printers.

The particles (3D dots) are around 50 to 100 m (510 to 250 DPI) in diameter.

Finishing

Though the printer-produced resolution is sufficient for many


applications, printing a slightly oversized version of the desired object in
standard resolution and then removing material with a higher-resolution
subtractive process can achieve greater precision.

Supports are removable or dissolvable upon completion of the print, and


are used to support overhanging features during construction.

Additive Processes

Extrusion deposition (Fused deposition modeling)

Granular materials binding

Lamination

Photopolymerization

Mask-image-projection-based stereolithography

Extrusion deposition
(Fused Deposition Modeling)

Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is an additive manufacturing technology


commonly used for modeling, prototyping, and production applications.

FDM works on an "additive" principle by laying down material in layers; a


plastic filament or metal wire is unwound from a coil and supplies material
to produce a part.

Various polymers are used


o

Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)

Polycarbonate (PC),

Polylactic Acid (PLA)

High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)

PC/ABS

Polyphenylsulfone (PPSU).

1 nozzle ejecting molten plastic


2 deposited material (modeled part
3 controlled movable table

Granular Materials Binding

The technique fuses parts of the layer, and then moves the working area
downwards, adding another layer of granules and repeating the process
until the piece has built up.

This process uses the unfused media to support overhangs and thin
walls in the part being produced.

A laser is typically used to sinter the media into a solid.

Granular Materials Binding

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) --- uses lasers as its power source to
sinter powdered material, binding it together to create a solid structure.

Selective Laser Melting (SLM) -- uses 3D CAD data as a digital


information source and energy in the form of a high powered laser to
create three-dimensional metal parts by fusing fine metallic powders
together.

Electron beam melting (EBM) -- EBM manufactures parts by melting


metal powder layer by layer with an electron beam in a high vacuum.

Lamination

Sheet is adhered to a substrate with a heated roller.

Laser traces desired dimensions of prototype.

Laser cross hatches non-part area to facilitate waste removal.

Platform with completed layer moves down out of the way.

Fresh sheet of material is rolled into position.

Platform moves up into position to receive next layer.

The process is repeated.

Laminated Object Manufacturing


1. Foil supply
roller

2. Heated

3. Laser beam
prism

4. Scanning

5. Laser unit

6. Layers

7. Moving platform 8. Waste

Photopolymerization

Photopolymerization is primarily used in stereolithography (SLA) to


produce a solid part from a liquid.

In Digital Light Processing (DLP), a vat of liquid polymer is exposed to


light from a DLP projector under safelight conditions. The exposed liquid
polymer hardens.

The build plate then moves down in small increments and the liquid
polymer is again exposed to light.

The process repeats until the model has been built.

Inkjet printer systems like the Objet PolyJet system spray photopolymer
materials onto a build tray in ultra-thin layers (between 16 and 30 m)
until the part is completed.

Stereolithography Apparatus

Mask-image-projection-based
stereolithography

In this technique a 3D digital model is sliced by a set of horizontal


planes.

Each slice is converted into a two-dimensional mask image.

The mask image is then projected onto a photocurable liquid resin


surface.

Light is projected onto the resin to cure it in the shape of the layer.

Printers

RepRap version 2.0 (Mendel)


AW3D v.4 (Prusa)

MakerBot Cupcake CNC.

Airwolf 3D

Applications
Industrial uses
Rapid Prototyping
Rapid Manufacturing
Mass Customization
Mass Production

Domestic and hobbyist uses


Clothing
3D Bio-printing
3D Printing For Implant And Medical Device
3D Printing Services

Future

Future applications for 3D printing might include creating open-source


scientific equipment to create open source labs.

Science-based applications like reconstructing fossils in paleontology.

Replicating ancient and priceless artifacts in archaeology.

Reconstructing bones and body parts in forensic pathology.

Reconstructing heavily damaged evidence acquired from crime scene


investigations.

The technology currently being researched for building construction.

Effects of 3D printing
Space exploration

Making spare parts on the fly

Cheaper and more efficient space exploration

Social change

Conventional relationship between the home and the workplace


might get further eroded.

It becomes easier to transmit designs for new objects around


the globe.

Challenges

Intellectual property rights of the 3D printer users.

Nearly anything can be printed by 3D printers and this is


troubling prospect if criminals use 3D printers to create illegal
products.

Firearms could be downloaded and reproduced by anybody with


a 3D printer.

Conclusion
3D Printing technology could revolutionize and re-shape the world.
Advances in 3D printing technology can significantly change and improve
the way we manufacture products and produce goods worldwide.

If the last industrial revolution brought us mass production and the advent
of economies of scale - the digital 3D printing revolution could bring mass
manufacturing back a full circle - to an era of mass personalization, and a
return to individual craftsmanship.

References

http://mashable.com/2014/03/06/3d-printed-blood-vessels/

https://www.rtejournal.de/ausgabe10/3562

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_printing

http://www.3dprinter.net/reference/what-is-3d-printing

Thank You