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Chapter 12

Understanding
Operating System

MELJUN CORTES

Overview
In this chapter, you will learn to
Identify and explain the basic functions and features

of an operating system
Install and upgrade Windows 2000 and Windows

XP
Troubleshoot installation problems

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Historical/Conceptual

Functions of the Operating System

Functions of an Operating System


Communicate with hardware
Provide a user interface
Provide a structure for access to applications
Enable users to manipulate programs and data

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Operating System Traits


An OS works only with a particular type of processor
An OS begins running as soon as the PC finishes its

POST
Application programs cannot run on a PC without an

OS
Programs use APIs (application programming

interfaces)
Flexibleallows use of new software and hardware

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Operating System Traits


Different OSs require different applications

Operating System

Application

Mac OS X

Microsoft Office 2004

Windows XP

Microsoft Office 2006

Linux

OpenOffice

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Communicating with Hardware


BIOS includes code that tells the computer how

to talk to basic hardware


The OS works with BIOS to talk to these devices
When BIOS does not know how to talk to a piece of

hardware, the OS talks directly to the device


Most OSs use device drivers provided by the manufacturer

(Bring Your Own BIOS) to interpret the language necessary


to talk to a new device

When theres a problem, the OS should provide

error handling or at least error notification


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Creating a User Interface


A user interface needs to
Show what applications are available
Provide an easy way to access

applications
Provide a way to label and save

the data
Disappear and allow the application to

take over the screen

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Pick a shoe
Pick an application

Organizing Programs and Data


The OS needs to be able to organize and

manipulate programs and data


Provides name (or label) for each program and

each piece of data


Provides naming system for drives
Allows users to store data and programs in

organized fashion
Allows users to manipulate data and programs
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Essentials

CompTIA A+
Essentials

Operating System Interfaces


Command-line interface
Character-based or text-based

Covered in Chapter 14

Graphical user interface (GUI)


Uses icons and pictures

User interacts with OS by pointing and clicking with mouse

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Todays Operating Systems


Overview
Microsoft Windows
Apple Macintosh
UNIX
Linux

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Microsoft Windows
Corporate Users

Windows
Windows
Windows
Windows

NT 3.1
NT 4.0
2000
XP Pro

Home Users

Windows 9x
Windows 95
Windows 98
Windows Me

XP Home
XP Media
Recently releasedWindows Vista
Versions for corporate and home users
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General Windows Features


File systems
Corporate used NTFS
Home used FAT and FAT32
Today both supported, but NTFS used for security

Plug and Play


Appeared with Windows 95
Migrated to corporate side with Windows 2000

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Windows NT 4.0, 2000 Pro,


XP

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Windows XP
Ended the Windows 9x product line
Windows XP Home
Basic features for home users

Windows XP Professional
Advanced features include security for corporate

users
Windows XP Media Edition
Advanced features for home users include ability to

watch TV and movies


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Windows Server Products


Windows NT 4.0 Server
Windows 2000 Server
Windows 2003

Server

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Apple Macintosh
Used GUI long before Windows

Proprietary computers
Current OS is OS X
Macs now run

on Intel CPUs
Uses BSD
variant of
UNIX

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UNIX
Oldest, most powerful OS
Many current OSs have concepts developed from

UNIX
Open sourceallows variants of OS

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Linux
UNIX-like OS written by Linus Torvalds
Runs on Intel/AMD processors
Free OS
Source code also freely available
Uses the GNU general public license (GPL)
Linux and applications bundled as Linux

distributions (distros)

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Linux
Distributions
Fedora Core
Debian
Slackware
Ubuntu
SuSE
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Installing and Upgrading Windows

Preparing for Installation


or Upgrade
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.

Identify hardware requirements


Verify hardware and software compatibility
Decide: Clean install or upgrade?
Back up data
Select an install method
Identify partition and file systems to use
Determine computers network role
Decide on language and locale settings
Plan for post-installation tasks

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Identify Hardware Requirements


Core Resources
CPU
RAM
Free hard disk space
Miscellaneous
Video adapter
Display
Storage devices

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Verify Compatibility
Hardware and software

Use Windows Marketplace (formally known as

Hardware Compatibility List)

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Clean Install or Upgrade


Clean install
Usually done on empty hard disk
All applications must be installed

Upgrade
New OS installs on top of the old one
Many previous settings and capabilities retained
Applications dont need to be reinstalled

Multiboot
Doing a clean install side by side with another OS
Enables you to boot to more than one OS
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Other Installation Methods


When deploying many computers, automated

methods used
Imagecomplete copy of OS and applications
Norton Ghost
PowerQuests Drive Image
Acroniss True Image

Remote Installation Services (RIS)

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Back Up Data
If data saved to central server, this step can be

skipped
If data exists on local drive, it needs to be backed

up
Back up to network server, DVD, USB, hard drive,

etc.
Will need to restore data from this location after

upgrade or reinstall

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Select an Installation Method


Two basic choices
CD-ROM (A+ focus)
Boot from CD and start

installation

Over the network (Network+ focus)

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Determine Partition & File System

Partition
Create when drive first created (or use third-party

tools to repartition)
If multiboot, use one partition for each OS
File system
Use NTFS whenever possiblesecurity features

are valuable
If older OSs need FAT or FAT32, use FAT or FAT32
for their partition

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Miscellaneous
Network role
Standalone, workgroup, or domain
Environment determines choice

Language and locale settings


Languages and displays can be configured for

different countries
Post-installation tasks
Install service packs, hotfixes, etc.
Install updated drivers
Install applications
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Install or Upgrade
Text mode
End user license agreement (EULA)
Partition hard disk
Files copied to hard disk

Graphical mode
Enter product key
Remaining installation completes

Upgrade disks are typically cheaper


Require OS to be already installed or separate disk

used to verify upgrade disk can be used


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Post-Installation Tasks
Similar as required for clean install
Identify installation problems
Install patches, service packs, and updates
Upgrade drivers
Restore user data

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Windows 2000 Professional


Hardware Requirements
Component
CPU
Memory
Hard Disk
Network
Display
Optical

Minimum
Pentium 133 MHZ
64 MB
2 GB with 650 MB
free
None
VGA resolution
Not required unless
installing from CD

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Recommended
Pentium II 350 MHZ
128 MB
6.4 GB with 2 GB free
Modern NIC
SVGA resolution
Not required unless
installing from CD

Install Upgrade XP Pro


Upgrade paths
Windows 98

Windows Me
Windows NT 4.0
SP5 or later

Windows 2000 Pro


(including SPs)
Windows XP Home
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Windows
XP Pro

XP Professional
Hardware Requirements
Component Minimum
CPU
Intel or AMD 233
MHZ
Memory
64 MB
Hard Disk
1.5 GB available
hard drive space
Network
None
Display
Optical

Recommended
Intel or AMD 300 MHZ

256 MB
4 GB available hard
drive space
Modern NIC

DirectX version 8
DirectX version 8
800 X 600 resolution 800 X 600 resolution
Any CD or DVD
Any CD or DVD drive
drive

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XP Pro Compatibility
Upgrade Advisor
First process that runs from setup.exe
Provides list of devices and software known to have

issues with XP
Can be run by itself
From Microsofts Web site
Or winnt32 /checkupgradeonly

On the installation CD or can be downloaded

for free
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XP Installation
Bootable CD-ROM boots into setup
May need to set boot order in BIOS

Registrationoptional
Activation
Mandatory within 30 days
Anti-piracy mechanism

System disabled after 30

days if not activated


Via Internet or phone
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2000 and XP Upgrade Issues


Can upgrade to 2000 Pro from 95 and 98 but not

Me
Some 9x applications wont run on 2000 and XP

Third-party disk compression applications not

supported on 2000/XP
Third-party power management applications can

cause problems with 2000/XP installation

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Pre-Upgrade Steps
Check compatibility

Back up data and configuration files


Perform spring cleaning
Perform disk scan and defrag
Uncompress all
Perform virus scan and disable or remove virus-

checking software
Disable CMOS virus checking
Be prepared to do clean install

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2000/XP Clean Install


Steps same for both

Start by booting to CD-ROM


Text mode
Can partition drive in this mode
Choose file system (usually NTFS)

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2000/XP Clean Install


Graphical mode
Enter product key
Good idea to write this on the CD

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2000/XP Clean Install


Configure computer name and administrator

password
Network settings

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Automating the Install


Scripted installation
Setup Manager creates answer files
Available on CD or can be downloaded
Creates answer files for multiple OSs
Fully automated or partially automated

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Automating the Install


Disk cloning problem
Unique security identifier (SID) is not unique

if cloned
Solution
GhostWalker or NewSID can be used to create new

SID
Sysprep sanitizes many unique settings on a
computer such as SID

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Troubleshooting Installation
Problems

Text Mode Errors


No boot device
Either startup disk is bad, or CMOS not set to boot

off CD-ROM first


Windows Setup requires X amount of available

drive space
Check formatting and/or space of C: drive

Not ready error on optical drive


Check the CD-ROM drive and disc

BSOD
Probably due to hardware incompatibility
Check KB 165863
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Graphical Mode Errors


Hardware detection errors
Could be hardware incompatibility
If non-critical hardware, find and install correct

drivers
Cant read CAB files
Check the CD-ROM for scratches
Try copying i386 files onto hard drive

Replace the CD-ROM

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Lockups During Install


Smart recovery, repair install
Unplug system and restart
Will automatically start where it left off

Optical drive, hard drive


Try another disc or another CD-ROM drive

Log filestrack progress of install


Setuplog.txt
Setupapi.log

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2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved