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Signal Processing Manipulation

and Transmission

Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

Signal Conditioning Circuits

Why do we need to do signal conditioning?


Well consider a sensor called a
thermocouple. A thermocouple is simply two
dissimilar wires joined together at a point
called a junction. At the junction, a voltage
potential will form that is a function of the
temperature of the junction. As a result, these
sensors are frequently used in making digital
thermometers.
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

The typical voltage level for the junction is on


the order of less than 10 millivolts. Clearly, thats
not much! But think back to the lab where you
hooked a wire to an oscilloscope and observed
noise from the florescent fixtures in lab. You
may not have noticed the amplitude of this
noise, but it can easily be on the order of 100 or
more millivolts. That means that signal noise, in
this example, is actually ten times greater than
the signal itself!
How could we possibly measure the signal we
want (from the thermocouple) when we have tentimes more signal noise??
ANSWER: WE CANT!
So the key is to perform signal conditioning
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

Signal amplifications

Signal amplification is carried out when the


typical signal level of a measurement transducer
is considered to be too low.
Amplification by analog means is carried out by
an operational amplifier.
Normally requires to have a high input
impedance so that loading effect on the
transducer output signal is minimized.
When amplifying the output signal from
accelerometers and some optical detectors, the
amplifier must have a high frequency response,
to avoid distortion of the output reading.
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

Instrumentation Amplifier

Some applications requiring the amplification


of very low-level signals, a special type of
amplifier known as an instrumentation
amplifier is used.
The first advantage is differential input
impedance is much higher.
Common mode rejection capability is much
better.
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

Instrumentation Amplifier

Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

Signal attenuation

The progressive reduction in {amplitude} of a


signal as it travels farther from the point of
origin.
One method of attenuating signals by analog
means is to use a potentiometer connected in
a voltage-dividing circuit.

Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

Voltage divider circuit

Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

Signal linearization
The transfer function for many electronic
devices, which relates the input to output,
contains a nonlinear factor. In most cases
this factor is small enough to be ignored.
However, in some applications it must be
compensated either in hardware or software.
Thermocouples, for example, have a
nonlinear relationship from input temperature
to output voltage, severe enough to require
compensation.
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

10

Example

Light intensity transducers typically have an


exponential relationship between the output and
the input light intensity.
V = K exp (-alpha Q)
If the diode is placed between the input and
output terminals of the amplifier the relationship
is
V = C log (V1)
Now if the output of the light transducer is
conditioned by an amplifier, the voltage level of
the processed signal is given by
V = C log (K) alpha CQ
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

11

Bias removal

Sometimes either because of the nature of


the measurement transducer itself, or as a
result of the other signal conditioning
operations, a bias exists in the output signal.
This can be expressed mathematically
Y = Kx + C
Analog processing consists of using an
operational amplifier connected in a
differential amplification mode.
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

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Filters - Introduction

Filters are circuits that are capable of passing


signals within a band of frequencies while
rejecting or blocking signals of frequencies
outside this band. This property of filters is also
called frequency selectivity.
Filter circuits built using components such as
resistors, capacitors and inductors only are
known as passive filters.
Active filters on the other hand often employ
transistors or op-amps in addition to resistors
and capacitors
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

13

Advantages of Active Filters over


Passive Filters

Active filters can be designed to provide


required gain, and hence no attenuation as
in the case of passive filters
No loading problem, because of high input
resistance and low output resistance of opamp.
Active Filters are cost effective as a wide
variety of economical op-amps are
available.
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

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Basic Filter Responses

Low Pass Filter Characteristics

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High Pass Filter Characteristics

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Band Pass Filter Characteristics

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Band Reject Filter Characteristics

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Active filters

Active filters are mainly used in


communication and signal processing circuits.
They are also employed in a wide range of
applications such as entertainment, medical
electronics, etc.
Most commonly used active filters:
Low pass filters
High pass filters
Band pass filters
Band reject filters
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

23

Each of these filters can be built using op-amp


as the active element and resistors and
capacitors as the passive elements (frequency
selective part). Better filter performance is
obtained by employing op-amps with higher
slew rates and higher gain-bandwidths.
The filtering behaviour of the circuit is best
represented by the frequency response
characteristics of the circuit, which shows the
variation of the filter circuit gain with respect to
operating frequency.
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

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Filter Design Criterion


Pass Band Gain

With active filters, it is possible to achieve a


pass band gain higher than 1. Most active filters
employ an amplifier which determines the pass
band gain of the filter.
Filters with a flat pass-band gain are commonly
used, and such a response is provided by
Butterworth filters. An another class of filters
called chebyshev filters, provide a ripple (or
overshoots in) pass-band gain.
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

25

Cut-off Frequencies
The cut-off frequencies fH and fL are determined
by the component values of the capacitors and
resistors in the filter circuit.
Roll-off Rate
Roll-off rate of a filter is the rate at which the
gain of the filter changes in the stop-band.
Higher the roll-off rate, better the frequency
selection! The roll-off rate is determined by the
order of the filter. For instance, a first order filter
gives 20 dB/decade roll off, whereas a second
order filter gives 40 dB/decade roll off.
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

26

First Order Low Pass Filter

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Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

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Derivation of Transfer
Function
The RC network behaves as a voltage divider supplied by vi, and
hence the voltage at the non-inverting terminal of the op-amp is
given as:
jX C
v
vi
R jX C
Where
1
j 1 and jX C
j2fC
The eqn for v + then reduces to:
vi
v
1 j2fRC

Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

28

We know that the output of an op-amp noninverting amplifier is given by:


R
v o 1 F v
R1

Substituting for v + from the previous equation,


R

1
v i
v o 1 F
R1 1 j2fRC
vo
AF

v i 1 j f fH

Where,
f H

1
2RC

Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

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fH = high cut-off frequency of the filter


R
A F 1 F pass - band gain of the filter
R1
f is the frequencyof the input signal

The gain magnitude and phase angle eqns for


the filter can be obtained as
vo
AF

2
vi
1 f fH

and

fH

tan 1

Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

30

The operation of the low-pass filter can be


verified from the gain magnitude equation:
1. At very low frequencies, that is f < fH,
vo
AF
vi

2. At cut-off frequency, that is f = fH,


v o AF

0.707A F
vi
2

3. At higher frequencies, that is f > fH,


vo
AF
vi
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

31

Roll-off Rate

From the gain magnitude equation, we see


that, if the frequency is increased 10 fold (1
decade), the voltage gain is divided by 10. In
other words the gain decreases 20 dB (= 20
log 10) each time the frequency is increased
by 10. Hence the roll-off rate of the first order
filter in the stop band is 20 dB/decade.
At cut-off frequency, fH, the gain falls by 3 dB
(= 20 log 0.707).
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

32

Example: Design a first order low-pass filter with a cut-off


frequency at 1 KHz and pass-band gain of 2. Draw the frequency
response of the circuit.

To design for:
.

1. fH = 1 KHz
2. AF = 2
3. First order low-pass filter
1. From the specified cut-off frequency

f H

1
1KHz
2RC

Assume, C = 0.01 mF
R

1
1

2fHC 2(10 3 Hz)(0.01 x10 6 F)

R 15.92K
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

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2. From the specified pass-band gain

AF

RF
1
2
R1

This implies, RF/R1= 1, or RF = R1

Assume, RF = R1 = 10K
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

34

The designed low pass filter circuit is shown


in figure

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Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

35

Second Order Filters

Second order filters provide 40 dB/decade


roll-off in the stop-band, and hence perform
better frequency selection than the first order
type.
With second order, and higher-order filters,
we can obtain interesting frequency
responses. Consider the two frequency
responses shown in figure

Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

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Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

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Butterworth filters gives us a reasonably flat


gain in the pass-band, whereas the
chebyshev filters show a ripple or overshoot
in the frequency response. The trade-off is
that at the cut-off frequency, chebyshev filter
shows a higher roll-off rate.
These frequency response types are
determined the damping factor of the filter
circuits.
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

38

Damping Factor

The damping factor (DF) of


an active filter circuit
determines which response
characteristics the filter
exhibits whether,
butterworth or chebyshev or
others.
The damping factor is
determined by the negative
feedback circuit and is
defined by the following
equation:

RF
DF 2
R1

Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

39

To achieve a second-order
butterworth response, for
example, the damping factor
must be 1.414. Therefore, to
implement this damping
factor, the feedback resistor
ratio must be

RF
2 DF 2 1.414
R1
RF
0.586
R1

Hence, for a second-order butterworth response, RF = 0.586R1

Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

40

Signal manipulation

To complete the discussion on analog signal


processing techniques, mention must also be
made of certain other special purpose
devices and circuits used to manipulate
signals.
Voltage to current conversion
Current to voltage conversion
Signal integration
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

41

Signal manipulation (Continued)

Voltage follower (Pre-amplifier)


Voltage comparator
Signal addition
Signal multiplication
Sample and hold circuits
Analog to digital conversion
Digital to analog conversion
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

42

Analog & digital signals


Analog

Digital
Discrete function Vk of
discrete sampling variable tk,
with k = integer: Vk = V(tk).

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

Voltage [V]

Voltage [V]

Continuous function V of
continuous variable t (time,
space etc) : V(t).

0.1
0
-0.1
-0.2

0.1
0
ts ts

-0.1
-0.2

4
6
time [ms]

10

2
4
6
8
sampling time, tk [ms]

10

Uniform (periodic) sampling.


Sampling frequency fS = 1/ tS
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

43

Digital vs analog processing


Digital Signal Processing (DSPing)
Limitations

Advantages

Often easier system upgrade.

A/D & signal processors speed:


wide-band signals still difficult to
treat (real-time systems).

Data easily stored.

Finite word-length effect.

Better control over accuracy


requirements.

Obsolescence (analog
electronics has it, too!).

More flexible.

Reproducibility.

Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

44

DSPing: aim & tools


Applications

Predicting a systems output.


Implementing a certain processing task.

Studying a certain signal.

General purpose processors (GPP), m-controllers.

Hardware

Software

Digital Signal Processors (DSP).

Fast

Programmable logic ( PLD, FPGA ).

Faster

real-time
DSPing

Programming languages: Pascal, C / C++ ...


High level languages: Matlab, Mathcad, Mathematica
Dedicated tools (ex: filter design s/w packages).
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

45

Digital system example


General scheme

ms
V

Sometimes steps missing

Antialiasing
ms

(ex: economics);

- D/A + filter
A

(ex: digital output wanted).

k
V

ms

A/D

Digital
Processing

Digital
Processing
D/A

Filter

Reconstruction
ms
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

ANALOG
DOMAIN

Important

A/D
DIGITAL
DOMAIN

- Filter + A/D

Filter
Filter
Antialiasing

ANALOG
DOMAIN

46

Digital system implementation


ANALOG INPUT

Antialiasing
Filter

A/D
Digital
Processing
DIGITAL OUTPUT

KEY DECISION POINTS:


Analysis bandwidth, Dynamic range

Pass / stop bands.


Sampling rate.

No. of bits. Parameters.


Digital format.

1
2
3

What to use for processing?


See slide DSPing aim & tools

Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

47

Sampling
How fast must we sample * a continuous
signal to preserve its info content?
Ex: train wheels in a movie.
25 frames (=samples) per second.
Train starts

wheels go clockwise.

Train accelerates

wheels go counter-clockwise.

Why?
Frequency misidentification due to low sampling frequency.

* Sampling: independent variable (ex: time) continuous

discrete.

Quantisation: dependent variable (ex: voltage) continuous discrete.


Here well talk about uniform sampling.
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

48

Signal Transmission

There is a necessity in many measurement system to


transmit measurement signals over quite large distances
from the point of measurement to the place where the
signals are recorded and/or used in a process control
system.
This creates Several problems for which a solution must be
found
Difficulties associated with long distance signal
transmission include serious contamination of the
measurement signal by Noise
Radiated electromagnetic fields from electrical machinery
and power cables, induced fields through wiring loops and
spikes on the ac power supply
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

49

Performance parameters

Signal amplification
Amplification of the signal prior to transmission is essential
if a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio is to be obtained after
transmission.
Shielding
Shielding provides a high degree of noise protection,
especially against capacitive-induced noise due to proximity
of signal wires to high current power conductors.
Current loop transmission
The signal attenuation effect of conductor resistance can be
minimized if varying voltage signals are transmitted as
varying current signals.

Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

50

Voltage to frequency conversion


Better immunity to noise can be obtained in
signal transmission if the signal is transmitted in
a digital format.
Fiber optic transmission
Noise corruption of signals is almost eliminated
by the use of fiber optic transmission cables, but
there is a cost penalty associated with this
because of the higher cost of the fiber optic
system.
Electronic Instrumentation
Lecturer Touseef Yaqoob

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