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DROPLET EVAPORATION

BHANU PRATAP
ME13M010

Applications
Spray Combustion systems
Spray drying systems
Spray cooling systems
Spray dispersion systems

Assumptions for Evaporation


1.
2.
3.
4.

Quasi-steady process.
Quiescent and infinite medium.
Single component with zero solubility.
Binary diffusion with unity Lewis number ( Zeldovich
energy eqn).
5. Constant thermo-physical properties.

STAGES DURING EVAPORATION

Evaporation Rate - Procedure


Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Gas phase mass conservation equation.


Gas phase energy equation.
Droplet gas-phase interface energy balance.
Droplet liquid mass conservation equation.

Gas phase energy equation gives Temperature distribution in gas


phase.

Temperature distribution with surface energy balance yields the


evaporation rate.

Basic Equations
Species Conservation

Energy Conservation

Liquid Vapor Equilibrium

Algorithm Evaporation at atm.


Assume

Find m.

Find YAS

Find Xw

Find Ts

Compare Ts

Drop radius Rs.


Drop surface Temperature Ts (All possible values 273<Ts<373 & T > Ts)
From Energy Conservation Equation

Using m. find YAS using Species Conservation equation

From YAS find X.

From X , find Ts using Clausius Calypeyron eqn.

From X , find Ts using Clausius Calypeyron eqn. & compare the Ts

T vs Ts for same m.
As T increases the
value of Ts increases
and reaches a fairly
constant value.

M vs Ts
M Vs TS

As Ts increases
the value of
Mass flow
increases.

9.00E-07
8.00E-07
7.00E-07

Mass flow in kg/s

6.00E-07
5.00E-07
4.00E-07
M Vs TS
3.00E-07
2.00E-07
1.00E-07

0.00E+00
250

270

290

310
Ts in K

330

350

370

Evaporation Time vs Ts
Td Vs Ts
390

370

Ts in K

350

330
Time Vs Ts 1 Bar
310

290

270

250

2000

4000

6000

8000
10000
Time in S

12000

14000

16000

18000

Algorithm Variation in pressure


Assume

Find X

Find YAS

Find

m.

Drop radius Rs
Drop surface Temperature Ts & P (All possible values 273<Ts<Tsat & T > Ts)
X = (Psat/P)

YAS = (Xw * MWwater) / {(Xw * MWwater) + (1 - Xw)MWair}}

From YAS , Find m. using species conservation equation

From m. using Energy conservation equation


Find Ts

Compare Ts

Compare Ts assumed and Ts obtained; When both are equal note the value for Ts &
Repeat for various pressures

Tinf Vs Ts
Tinf Vs Ts
390

370

Ts in K

350

330
Tinf Vs T 0.5 Bar
Tinf Vs Ts 1 Bar
310

Tinf Vs Ts 1.5 Bar

290

270

250
0

100

200

300

400
500
Tinf in K

600

700

800

900

M. Vs Ts
M Vs Ts
390

370

Ts in K

350

330

M Vs T 0.5 Bar
M Vs Ts 1 Bar
310

M Vs Ts 1.5 Bar

290

270

250
0

0.00000010.00000020.00000030.00000040.00000050.00000060.00000070.00000080.0000009 0.000001
Mass flow in Kg/s

Time for evaporation Vs Ts


Td Vs Ts
390

370

Ts in K

350

330
Time Vs T 0.5 Bar

Time Vs Ts 1 Bar
310

Time Vs Ts 1.5 Bar

290

270

250
0

5000

10000

15000
Time in S

20000

25000

Inference
The droplet does not reach its saturation temperature, even it its
ambient temperature is too high. It evaporates fully before
reaching saturation.
Evaporation time increases with increase in pressure
For 50 % decrease in pressure it reduces by 50.07%
For 50 % increase in pressure it increases by 47.34%

Property Reference (liq. -> water)


1.
Perrys Chemical Engg. Handbook
2.
Properties of Gases and Liquids by Reid
3.
An Introduction to Combustion Concepts and Applications by Stephen
R Turns

ASSUMPTIONS:
Spherically symmetric droplet.
Spherical cap geometry in case of sessile drop.
Single component droplet.
Transient processes are ignored.
- droplet heating.
- variable transport properties.
Recirculation within drops, time dependence of gas temperature and
the convection heat transfer coefficient are not taken into account.

SETTLED SCIENCE :
D2 law.
Ficks law of diffusion.

Research Proposal
To develop a model of evaporation of a drop in quiescent ambient
incorporating the effects of internal flow, transient and variable
transport properties separately.
Two aspects of this theory which have received considerable
attention for research are :
validity of the quasi-steady assumption and
accounting for variable transport properties.

Approach
Effects of internal flows due to temperature and pressure will have to
be looked upon and incorporated in the governing equations of
droplet evaporation.
Transient & variable properties can be incorporated by integrating the
mass, species and energy equations governing droplet evaporation.

References
Hubbard, G.L., Denny, V.E., and Mills, A.F., Droplet Evaporation: Effects
of Transient and Variable properties, International journal of Heat and
Mass Transfer, 18:1003-1008(1975).
S. Kotake and T. Okazaki, Evaporation and combustion of fuel droplet.
Inc. J. Weir! Mass Transfer 12. 595-610 (1969).
The Evaporation of Water Droplets. A Single Droplet Drying Experiment,
D.E. Walton, Drying Technology: An international journal, 22:3, pp. 431456, 2004.
Turns, Stephen R., An introduction to Combustion: Concepts and
Applications, Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited, Third Edition.
Williams, F.A., Combustion Theory, 2nd Ed., Addison-Wesley, Redwood
City, CA, 1985.

Thank You