Sie sind auf Seite 1von 18

# ATTITUDE REPRESENTATION

## Attitude cannot be represented by vector in 3-dimensional space, like

position or angular velocity, even though attitude is a 3-dimensional
quantity.
Attitude is always specified as a rotation relative to a base, or reference
frame, just as vector position is specified as a displacement from a
reference point. However there is often confusion in the direction:

## Rotation of the reference frame to align with the body frame

Rotations are described by various means

Euler Angles

Euler Axis/Angle

Quaternion

## The DCM transforms a vector representation from one coordinate frame to

another, or rotates vectors from one attitude to another.

r B

T B r A
A

r2 A

or

The DCM can be formed by dot products of unit vectors of two frames

T B

iB iA

jB i A

k B iA

iB j A

iB k A

jB k A or

k B k A

jB j A
kB jA

R 2
1

## Note that if we set A=1 and B=2, T

B
A

R 2 r1 A
1

i2 i1

i2 j1

i2 k1

j2 i1
j2 j1
j2 k1

k2 i1

k 2 j1

k 2 k1

1 T
2

The nine elements are not independent because the DCM must be orthonormal

T B T A T A T B
A

## P. Axelrad, D. Lawrence ASEN3200 Spring 2006

=I

EULER ANGLES
Euler Angles are a particular sequence of three rotations about particular
reference frame axes. Both the sequence and the axes must be
specified to clearly define the attitude (rotation) of interest.

## The same angle values used in a different sequence, or about different

axes, results in a different attitude

## Example: Yaw-Pitch-Roll Euler angle sequence rotating the reference

frame (call it frame 1) into the body frame:
1) - Yaw the reference frame about its k-axis with angle y to
produce the 2-frame
2) - Pitch about the new j-axis with angle to produce the 3-frame
3) - Roll about the new i-axis with angle to produce the body
frame B
The resulting rotation matrix rotating 1-frame vectors v into their
corresponding body frame position is given by

vB 1 = R B v1 1
1

where

## P. Axelrad, D. Lawrence ASEN3200 Spring 2006

R B R( )B R( )3 R(y )2
1

## EULER ANGLE EXAMPLE

Yaw,Pitch,Roll (k,j,i) Sequence
i3

pitch

i1

j2
j1

yaw

i2

j2,j3

i2

k1,k2

k2
i3,iB

(angle y

k3

(angle
roll

(angle

jB

k3

kB

1
R 2 0

0
c
s
i

j
2

1
R 2 0

s
c

1
R 2 s

0
1
0
s
c
0

0
j
0

## Transformation Matrix for Euler Yaw,Pitch,Roll (k,j,i)

c cy

1
R321 y , , B c sy s s cy

s sy c s cy

c sy
c cy s s sy
s cy c s sy

s c

c c

## Any rigid body rotation can be expressed by a single rotation about a

fixed axis.
The rotation matrix [R] is given in terms of a unit vector along the Euler
axis e (a unit vector), and the angle,

## R n, 2 cos I + 1-cos e1 e 1 sin [[e]1 ]

1

cos

1
2

tr R 1
1

R23 R32

1
R31 R13
e1
2sin

R12 R21

Shuster, M., "Survey of Attitude Representations," Journal of Astronautical Sciences, Vol. 41, No. 4, Oct.-Dec. 1993. pp. 439-517.

## P. Axelrad, D. Lawrence ASEN3200 Spring 2006

NOTATION
r b r B b r1b1 r2b2 r3b3
T

r b [[b ]B ] r B
B

0
[[b ]B ] b3

b2
c = cos()

s = sin()

b3
0
b1

b2
b1

where

b B

b1
b2

b3

## Only one redundant element

requiring use of a constraint | q | = 1
Only ambiguity is a sign
Can be combined easily to produce
successive rotations
DCM computation given by multiply
& add of quaternion elements (no
trig functions)
Propagation requires integration of
only 4 kinematic equations
Widely used because of simplicity of
operations and small dimension,
together with lack of representation
singularity

q1

q2
q
q3

q4

Shuster, M., "Survey of Attitude Representations," Journal of the Astronautical Sciences, Vol. 41, No. 4, Oct.-Dec. 1993. pp. 439-517.

## P. Axelrad, D. Lawrence ASEN3200 Spring 2006

QUATERNION REPRESENTATION
Given Euler Axis e and angle

q1

q1
q2

q q2 sin e, q4 cos , q
2
2
q3

q3
q4
q q4 1 (q must be constrained to unit length)
2

## Quaternion versus Rotation Matrix (DCM_

R(q , q4 ) q4 q
2

I 2 q q T 2q4 [[q ]]

q12 q2 2 q3 2 q4 2

R ( q ) 2 q1q2 q4 q3

2 q3 q1 q4 q2

2 q1q2 q4 q3
q1 q2 q3 q4
2

2 q3 q2 q4 q1

2 q1q3 q4 q2

2 q2 q3 q4 q1

2
2
2
2
q1 q2 q3 q4

1
1 trR ,
2
1
1
1
q1
R

R
,
q

R
,
q

23 32 2
31 13 3
R12 R21
4q4
4q4
4q4

trR 4q4 1, q4
2

## RCA RCB RBA

q3 C q2 C q1 B
A

q3 C q1 B q2 C
A

q4

q3
q
q2

q1
P. Axelrad, D. Lawrence ASEN3200 Spring 2006

## (Note the swapped order)

q3

q2

q4

q1

q1

q4

q2

q3

q1

q2

q3

q4

Kinematics
Relationship between angular velocity and attitude representations

d R (t )
dt

R(t )[[ t ]]

q4 (t )

d q (t ) 1 q3 (t )
=
dt
2 q2 (t )

q1 (t )

q3 (t )
q4 (t )
q1 (t )
q2 (t )

q2 (t )
1 (t )
q1 (t )

2 (t )
q4 (t )

3 (t )
q3 (t )

## For a small angles ,

sin( ~ , cos( ~ 1

The rotation DCM for a sequence of three small Euler angles is:

1
R I [[ ]] 3
2

3
1

2
1
1

## Use standard attitude sensors such as a star tracker or sun sensor

Sensor axes are calibrated with respect to body-fixed reference frame
(B)
Direction to reference object (sun or star) is found in an inertial frame (I)
using star catalog, ephemeris prediction, etc.
Direction to reference object is also measured by the on-board sensors
and expressed in the (B) frame.
Now have one or more unit vectors to objects expressed in both (I) and
in (B). Note that a minimum of 2 independent objects is required to
determine 3-D attitude
Calculate the attitude DCM

## Given measurements of two unit vectors (pointing to two objects) in a

body frame and a reference frame

v1 A , v1 B , v2 A , v2 B

## How can the DCM representing attitude be determined? T must

simultaneously satisfy

v1 B T B v1 A
A

and

v2 B T B v2 A
A

## Use two of the measured vectors to define a set of three orthogonal

unit vectors in the two frames.

Create a matrix equation from the three vector equations and use
this to solve for the attitude DCM

## Given unit vectors

Construct

v1 A , v1 B , v2 A , v2 B

v1 A v2 A
r1 v1 A , r2
, r3 r1 r2
v1 A v2 A
v1 B v2 B
s1 v1 B , s2
, s3 s1 s2
v1 B v2 B
M R r1 r2 r3 M s s1 s2 s3

T B M s M RT
A

## Transformation DCM estimate

(note rotation DCM RA is the
B
transpose of this)

REFERENCES

## Shuster, M., "Survey of Attitude Representations," Journal of the

Astronautical Sciences, Vol. 41, No. 4, Oct.-Dec. 1993. pp. 439-517.

## Shuster, M. D. and Oh, S. D., "Three-Axis Attitude Determination from

Vector Observations," Journal of Guidance and Control, Vol. 4, No. 1,
Jan.-Feb. 1981, pp. 70-77.