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WI 3.

Welding Inspection

Practical Plate Exercise


Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample 6A Cap

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Porosity
Slag
Inclusion

Cap Undercut
Intermittent

Cap Undercut
Intermittent

Arc Strike

Incomplete Filled Groove


Lack of
fusion

Cap Undercut
Intermittent

Arc Strike

Note: spatter and surface slag requires removal, arc strikes


require blending and crack detection
Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample 6A Root

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Excess
Penetration

Excess
Penetration

Gas Pore

Linear Misalignment

Surface Slag Lack of Root


Fusion

Root Undercut

Note: Spatter and surface slag require removal


Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample 6B Cap

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Incomplete Filled Groove

Lack of Sidewall Fusion

?Porosity

Lack of Sidewall
Fusion

Surface Slag
Overlap and Excess Cap Height Full Weld Length

Note: Surface slag requires removal and poor toe blending full
weld length
Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample 6B Root

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

?
Crater Pipe

Lack of Root Fusion

Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

Slag Inclusion

Lack of Root
Penetration

Lack of Root Fusion

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample 6C Cap

WI 3.1

Welding Process FCAW


Incomplete
Filled Groove +
Lack of
Sidewall
Longitudinal
Fusion
Crack

Cap Undercut

Surface slag & Spatter

Slag Inclusion

Incomplete Filled
Groove + Lack of
Sidewall Fusion + Cap
Undercut Intermittent

Note: Spatter and surface slag requires removal


Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample 6C Root

WI 3.1

Welding Process FCAW


Mechanical Damage

Burn Through

?Excess Penetration

Poor Stop/Start + Lack of


Root Penetration

Lack of Root Fusion

Lack of Root Fusion

Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample 6D Cap

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Porosity
Incomplete
Filled Groove

Excess Cap
Height

Cap
Undercut

Cap
Undercut

Lack of Sidewall
Fusion

Overlap between Capping Passes

Note: Excess cap height and poor cap profile throughout.


Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample 6D Root

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Mechanical Damage

Lack of Root Fusion

Lack of Root Fusion

Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample 6E Cap

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Lack of
Sidewall
Fusion

Cap Undercut Intermittent

Cap Undercut Intermittent

Incomplete Filled Groove

Excess Cap Height

Incomplete Filled Groove

Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample 6E Root

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Poor Stop/Start + Crater Pipe

?
Lack of Root Fusion
?

Excess Root Penetration

Lack of Root Fusion

Root Undercut

Excess Root
Penetration

Crater Pipe

Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

of Root
?Lack
fusion

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample 6F Cap

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)


Mechanical
Damage

?
?

Crater pipe

Lack of Sidewall fusion

Poor Toe Blend

Lack of Sidewall Fusion + Incomplete Filled Groove

Tack Weld

Arc
?
Strikes

Note: Arc strikes require blending and crack detection


Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample 6F Root

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)


Poor Stop/Start + Lack of Root
Penetration + Crater Pipe

Arc Strikes
Mechanical Damage +
Lack of Root Fusion

Lack of Root Fusion


?

Blow Hole

Lack of
Root
Fusion

Lack of
Root
Fusion

Arc Strikes
Arc Strikes

Note: Arc strikes require blending and crack detection


Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample 6G Cap

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Parent Material Damage

Arc Strikes

Arc Strikes

Lack of Sidewall Fusion +


Incomplete Filled Groove

Poor Toe Blend + Excess Cap Height


Porosity

Note: Arc strikes require blending and crack detection, Seek advise
on parent material damage
Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample 6G Root

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)


Parent material
gas cavities

Plate corrosion

Poor Stop/Start

Lack of Root Fusion

Crater pipe

? slag
Surface

Surface Slag

Linear Misalignment

Note: Surface slag requires removal, plate corrosion requires


wire brushing
Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample 6H Cap

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Incomplete Filled Groove

Arc Strikes

Arc Strikes

Arc Strikes

Cap Undercut Intermittent

Slag Inclusion

Arc Strikes

Cap Undercut
Arc Strikes

Note: Parent plate damage throughout, seek advice. Arc strikes


require blending and crack detection.
Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample 6H Root

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Crater pipe

Excessive root penetration


Linear misalignment +
lack of root fusion

Lack of root fusion

Poor stop/start
Lack of root fusion

Arc strikes

Arc strikes

Note: Arc strikes require blending and crack detection, Seek advise
on parent material damage
Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample 6I Cap

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Cap undercut

Spatter

Arc strikes

Poor toe blend full weld length

Note: Arc strikes require blending and crack detection. Spatter


requires removal.
Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample 6I Root

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)


Arc strike

Lack of root penetration

Burn through

Poor stop/start

Linear misalignment

Lack of root penetration

Mechanical damage

Lack of root fusion

Lack of root fusion


+ poor stop/start

Note: Arc strikes require blending and crack detection, Seek advise
on parent material damage
Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample 6J Cap

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Suspect crater cracking

Cap undercut

Arc strikes

Cap undercut

Porosity

Cap undercut intermittent


Cap undercut

Note: Material damage throughout, seek advice. Arc strikes require


blending and crack detection.
Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample 6J Root

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

?
Mechanical damage

? fusion
Lack of root
?

Linear misalignment +
lack of root fusion

Linear misalignment +
lack of root fusion

Lack of root penetration

Note: Material damage seek advice on course of action.


Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample T4 Cap

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)


Mechanical damage

Cap undercut

Cap undercut

Spatter/irregular cap profile

Note: Grinding marks throughout seek advice on course of action.


Excess cap height and poor cap profile throughout.
Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample T4 Root

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Arc strike

Root undercut
intermittent

Lack of penetration intermittent

Ground flush root

Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample H8 Cap

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

Arc strikes

Surface slag

Mechanical
damage

Cap undercut intermittent

Cap undercut intermittent


Mechanical
damage

Note: Mechanical damage seek advice on course of action.


Excess cap height and poor cap profile throughout. Arc
strikes require blending and crack detection.
Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Plate Sample H8 Root

WI 3.1

Welding Process MMA (SMAW)

?
Arc strike
?

Lack of root
fusion

Spatter

Lack of root
fusion

Lack of root
fusion

Lack of root
fusion

Spatter

Root undercut intermittent

Note: Arc strikes require blending and crack detection. Spatter


requires removal
Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

WI 3.1

Any Questions

Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers