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Jon Witt

Alana Hermiston

SOC
2nd Canadian Edition

2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

CULTURE 3
2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

LO-1

Culture and Society


Culture
totality of our shared language,
knowledge, material objects,
practices and beliefs.

2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

LO-2

The Development of Culture


Around the World
Cultural Universals
A common practice or belief shared by all
societies, including:

sports
cooking
funeral ceremonies
medicine
marriage
sexual restrictions
2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

LO-2

The Development of Culture


Around the World
Innovation
process of introducing new
ideas or objects to a culture
Discovery
making known or sharing the
existence of an aspect of
reality
Invention
results when existing
cultural items are combined
in a form that did not exist
before
2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

LO-3

Globalization and Diffusion


Cultural innovation can be highly
globalized
Diffusion
process by which some aspect of culture
spreads from group to group or society to
society
mass media, the Internet, immigration, and
tourism accelerate diffusion and transmission of
culture
has led to the cultural domination of developing
nations by more affluent nations
2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE

Learned
Shared
Transmitted
Cumulative
Human
Dynamic
Culture is socially constructed
2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE
Culture defines us and our way of life
providing us with an understanding of our
society and our place in it. It provides us with
codes of behavior.
As a process it delivers the values of a society
through products and other meaning making
forms (Campbell et. Al. 2012).
This can be both freeing and constricting.
2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

LO-3

Elements of Culture
Material culture
physical or technological aspects of
our daily lives

Nonmaterial culture
ways of using material objects as well
as customs, ideas, expressions,
beliefs, knowledge, philosophies,
governments, and patterns of
communication.
2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

LO-3

Elements of Culture
Technology
cultural information about how to use
the material resources of the
environment to satisfy human needs
and desires
Culture lag
period of adjustment when nonmaterial
culture is struggling to adapt to new
conditions of the material culture.
2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

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MATERIAL CULTURE
Material culture includes items that you
can touch or feel. It is the STUFF of
everyday life.
Examples are:
buildings
cars
Electronics (computers, IPods, cells, tablets)
clothing
crafts and artifacts
2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

11

NON-MATERIAL CULTURE

Symbols
Language
Gestures
Values
Beliefs
Behavior Norms, Folkways, Mores, Laws

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SYMBOLS
Make culture possible
Symbols are those things that are
used to give meaning to something
that goes beyond what it actually is
(Johnson, 2008, 39)

Symbols are one of the building


blocks of culture and the ideas that
serve to give things meaning and
build the reality we live in
(Johnson, 2008, 40)

2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

13

EXAMPLES OF SYMBOLS

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LO-3

Elements of Culture
Language: system of shared symbols
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

Language is not a given


Language precedes thought
Language is culturally determined
Language may color how we see world
Language can transmit gender and racial
stereotypes

2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

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LO-3

Elements of Culture
Nonverbal communication
use of gestures, facial expressions, and
other visual images to communicate
nonverbal communication is learned
nonverbal communication is different
in different cultures

2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

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LO-3

Elements of Culture
Values
collective conception of what is
good, desirable, and properor
bad, undesirable, and improper
in a culture

2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Defining Canadian
People

Canadians believe in:

LO-3

Fairness

Equality

Human
Rights

Tolerance

Generosity

Freedom

Diversity

2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

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LO-5

Elements of Culture
Norms: established standards of behaviour
maintained by a society
Formal norms

generally written; specify strict


punishments

Informal norms
generally understood but not precisely
recorded

Mores (Formal)
norms deemed highly necessary to the
welfare of a society

Folkways (Informal)
norms governing everyday behaviour
2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

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LO-5

Elements of Culture
Norms
not followed in all situations
weak norms may be ignored
may be violated due to norm conflict
adherence contingent on changes in
political, economic, and social
conditions
2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

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LO-5

Elements of Culture
Sanctions
penalties and rewards for conduct
concerning a social norm
positive sanctions include pay raises,
medals, and words of gratitude
negative sanctions include fines, threats,
imprisonment, and stares of contempt

2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

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LO-3

Culture and the


Dominant Ideology
Dominant ideology
the set of cultural beliefs and practices that
legitimate existing powerful social, economic,
and political interests
helps explain and justify who gets what and
why in a way that supports and maintains
the status quo
Marx argued that a capitalist society has a
dominant ideology that serves the interests
of the ruling class
2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Aspects of Cultural
Variation

LO-3

Subculture
segment of society that shares distinctive
pattern of mores, folkways, and values that
differs from the pattern of the larger society
Argot: specialized language that
distinguishes a subculture from
the wider society

2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Subculture Slang

LO-3

Source: Luc Reid. 2006. Talk the Talk: The Slang of 65 American
Subcultures. Cincinnati, OH: Writers Digest Books.
2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Aspects of Cultural
Variation

LO-3

Counterculture
subculture that conspicuously and
deliberately opposes certain aspects of the
larger culture
Hippies
Terrorist cells

Culture shock
the feelings of disorientation, uncertainty,
and even fear that people experience when
they encounter unfamiliar cultural practices
2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

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LO-4

Aspects of Cultural
Variation
Ethnocentrism
tendency to assume that ones own
culture and way of life represent
the norm or are superior to all
others

2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

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LO-4

Aspects of Cultural
Variation
Cultural relativism
viewing peoples behaviour from
the perspective of their own culture

2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

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