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Chapter 3

Principles of Baking

Principles of Baking
This chapter introduces the student to the scientific basis
for what takes place in the bakeshop.
Concepts and vocabulary presented here are used and
expanded upon throughout the text.
Understanding the science of mixing fat, flour and water
to make a finished product makes for a well-rounded
professional.

On Baking: A Textbook of Baking and Pastry Fundamentals, Second Edition


Labensky, Martel, Van Damme

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Mixing
Once ingredients are measured, they must be
MIXED
Mixing accomplishes:
Even distribution of ingredients
Breakdown of fats and liquids, causing them to
emulsify
Activation of the proteins in wheat flour causing
formation of gluten
Incorporation of air (aeration) into dough.
On Baking: A Textbook of Baking and Pastry Fundamentals, Second Edition
Labensky, Martel, Van Damme

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Mixing

On Baking: A Textbook of Baking and Pastry Fundamentals, Second Edition


Labensky, Martel, Van Damme

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Importance of Moisture
Moisture dissolves ingredients, helps hydrate and
activates compounds in dough
Doughs have low water content.
Yeast bread dough, cookie dough, pie dough.

Batters generally contain more liquids, fat and


sugar than doughs.
cake batter, muffin batter and pancake batter.

On Baking: A Textbook of Baking and Pastry Fundamentals, Second Edition


Labensky, Martel, Van Damme

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Heat Transfer
Conduction - movement of heat from one item to
another through direct contact.
Pan placed over burner

Convection - transfer of heat through a fluid,


which may be liquid or gas.
Hot air circulating in oven

On Baking: A Textbook of Baking and Pastry Fundamentals, Second Edition


Labensky, Martel, Van Damme

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Heat Transfer (cont.)


Radiation - transfer of heat through waves that
move from the heat source to the food.
Infrared cooking
Microwave ovens

On Baking: A Textbook of Baking and Pastry Fundamentals, Second Edition


Labensky, Martel, Van Damme

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Baking and Cooking Methods


Dry-heat cooking uses air or fat and is the
principal method to cook:
batter
dough

Moist heat uses water or steam for cooking:


fruits
tenderizing foods
reducing liquids

On Baking: A Textbook of Baking and Pastry Fundamentals, Second Edition


Labensky, Martel, Van Damme

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Cooking Methods

On Baking: A Textbook of Baking and Pastry Fundamentals, Second Edition


Labensky, Martel, Van Damme

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

The Baking Process


Batters and dough pass through 9 stages during the baking
process:

Gasses form
Gasses are trapped
Starches gelatinize
Proteins coagulate
Fats melt
Water evaporates
Sugars caramelize
Carryover baking
Staling
On Baking: A Textbook of Baking and Pastry Fundamentals, Second Edition
Labensky, Martel, Van Damme

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

What is Flavor and Taste?


Flavor - combination of the tastes, aromas and
other sensations in the mouth.
The five primary Tastes are:

Sweet
Sour
Salty
Bitter
Umami

On Baking: A Textbook of Baking and Pastry Fundamentals, Second Edition


Labensky, Martel, Van Damme

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Science of Taste
Chewing releases flavor compounds in food
Taste buds on the tongue detect taste and flavor
compounds
Aromas and odor compounds reach olfactory bulb
through internal and external nostrils

On Baking: A Textbook of Baking and Pastry Fundamentals, Second Edition


Labensky, Martel, Van Damme

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Effects on Flavor Perception


TEMPERATURE. Foods at warm temperatures
offer the strongest tastes.
CONSISTENCY of the product
PRESENCE OF CONTRASTING TASTES
PRESENCE OF FATS
COLOR

On Baking: A Textbook of Baking and Pastry Fundamentals, Second Edition


Labensky, Martel, Van Damme

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Compromises to Taste Perception


Sense of taste can be challenged by factors
beyond ones control.
Age
Health
Smoking

On Baking: A Textbook of Baking and Pastry Fundamentals, Second Edition


Labensky, Martel, Van Damme

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.