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S O Z I O , I N C .
P A G E 1

101

FRAGRANCE
///////////////////

ALL THERE IS TO
KNOW ABOUT
FRAGRANCE:
HISTORY
TECHNIIQUES
OLFACTIVE ANALYSIS
TRENDS

OLFACTIVE
TRAINING
PRESENTED BY SOZIO, INC.

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S O Z I O , I N C .
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101

FRAGRANCE

The term perfume is associated with


fragrance - an arousing odor,
pleasant smell, erotica, sensuality.
The French use of the term perfume
dates back to the 16th Century
and is derived from the Latin per"through" + fumare -"to smoke". It
describes the activity used to
spread scent in churches, public
places and homes by burning
aromatic plants -- incense -- and
thus through smoke
Today the production of perfume is
part of a multi billion-dollar industry.
In ancient times it also played a
major role in the prosperous trading
of merchandise between the east
and the west.

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101

FRAGRANCE

Smell -- one of the five senses -is the sense that allows us, with the
help of organs in our nose and a
process of memory and associations in
our brain, to recognize our world and
to understand and adapt to our
environment.
It tells us what we like and dislike;
it tells us with whom to fall in love.
It stimulates our appetite and enriches
our eating experience.
It triggers memories and affects our
moods. The lack of it might endanger
our lives or leave us in state of
depression.

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101

FRAGRANCE

Perfume Basics - Perfume is a man


made product, mostly in the form of
liquid, which is composed of several,
sometimes hundreds, of components
that produce a pleasant smell by
having their odor molecules float in the
air. Plants, animals and synthetic
aromatic compounds make up the
source ingredients for the perfume
industry.
The formulas used for creating perfume
are usually carefully guarded secrets
but almost all perfume manufacturers
have developed a similar technique
that enables the scent of the perfume
to unfold gradually over time.

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S O Z I O , I N C .
P AG E 5

HISTORY

&
FRAGRANCE
THE HISTORY OF
PERFUME
The History of Perfume - The history of
the production and use of perfume
stretches back some thousands of
years.
Perfume, incense and the use of scent
were mentioned many times in the
bible, along with remains of records
describing production in ancient
Egypt, the land of Israel, India,
Mesopotamia and in the Far East.

Copyright 2012 Sozio, Inc.

The Greeks, followed by the Romans,


refined the process of production of
aromatic oils and perfumes, and
emphasized the use of them in the
culture of body care.
Islamic scientists, hundreds of years ago,
introduced a process of distilling that
enabled manufacturers to extract
essential oils and fragrances from raw
materials.

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S O Z I O , I N C .
P AG E 6

SPICE, INCENSE

&
FRAGRANCE

INCENSE
TRADE ROUTES
The Ancient Incense Trade Routes The Perfume and incense trade
route played an important role in
the connection between the East
and the West providing
commercial activity that also
included the trade of spices and
precious stones.

Fortresses were built in strategic points


along the trade routes in order to protect
the convoys carrying the expensive
merchandise from robbers.

From ancient Arabia and its


neighbors, this route brought
famous aromatic plants such as
frankincense and myrrh to the holy
land, and eventually to the western
world.
Copyright 2012 Sozio, Inc.
Copyright 2011 Sozio, Inc.

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101

FRAGRANCE

Basic classification of perfume is done


using 3 main categories:
The concentration/dilution level of the
essential oils
The family to which it belongs
The notes of the scent
Concentration/Dilution:
Since essential oils are by nature
incredibly concentrated, extremely
toxic and should not be consumed,
inhaled or come in contact with skin,
the mixture of essential oils is diluted
with alcohol and/or with other neutral
odor sources like water, coconut oil,
wax or extracts of jojoba.
This is also done to cut the intensity of
the scent.

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S O Z I O , I N C .
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101

FRAGRANCE

The Origin/Source of Essential Oils


Plants, animals and synthetic aromatic
compounds make up the source
ingredients for the perfume industry.
Plants Plants have been the earliest and
the main source of aromatic compounds
in perfume production, primarily because
of their relative ease of accessibility, and
the great variety of odors among them.
The source of aromatic compounds can
come from different parts of the plants.
From flowers like the rose and jasmine,
from resin like frankincense, myrrh and
pine, from bulbs like those of the iris plant,
from bark like cinnamon, from seeds like
Tonka bean, coriander, anise and others,
or from the root like orrisroot. Some
commonly used leaves and twigs are
lavender, sage and rosemary. Cloves are
an example of a flower (in bud form) that
is valued.

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S O Z I O , I N C .
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101

FRAGRANCE

Many fruits that elicit enticing odors,


such as cherries and strawberries, are
surprisingly not used in the production
of perfumes. Whenever these
fragrances are achieved they are the
result of synthetic compounds. On the
other hand, the leaves and rind of the
fruit of citrus plants are often used in
the perfume industry.

Copyright 2012 Sozio, Inc.

Some plants have been more difficult


to find or to grow. Plants like myrrh
and frankincense for example were
grown, in the past, only in Somalia and
Southern Arabia; persimmon was
grown in Ein Gedi by the Dead Sea,
some others like cinnamon were
grown in Ceylon and south India,
others in China. Together with the
spices grown in the east, these rare
plants triggered the establishment of
the famous Trade Route, known also
as the Perfume Route or Incense
Route.

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101

FRAGRANCE

Animals Animal pheromones have


been used in perfume production for
a number of centuries. Perfumers have
highly valued them for the affect they
have on the perfume compounds,
since they tend to heighten the
intensity of the fragrance. Today,
simulated animal pheromone extracts
are synthetically created in order to
protect endangered animals.
Synthetic compounds The use of
synthetic aromatic ingredients for
perfume production goes back as far
as the end of the 19th century. The
progress made in the research of
organic chemistry made it possible to
develop new aromatic compounds
that replaced, in many cases, the
more expensive and rare natural
aromatic sources, thus, allowing the
manufacture of perfume for more
reasonable prices.

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101

FRAGRANCE

Aromatic Essential Oils:

Absolutes:

(Derived from flowers, stems, leaves,


barks and fruits)

(Created to remove aromatic


components from a plant which
cannot yield aromatic essential oil)

Examples:
Orange Oil
Lavender Oil
Patchouli Oil
Sandalwood Oil

Examples:
Rose
Jasmine
Orange Flower

Resins:

Man Made Ingredients:

(Materials which are exuded from a


plant)
Examples:
Myrrh
Benzoin
Fir
Oakmoss

Commonly called chemicals, varieties


of aromatic sensations, reproduced
synthetically.

Note: Most fragrances are comprised of a combination of natural and synthetic ingredients.
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P AG E 1 2

HOW
FRAGRANCE
IS MADE
METHOD TO
THE MADNESS
Today, fragrance is usually constructed
from a mixture of essential oils and
fragrances, combined with fixatives
and solvents.
The essential oils contain the volatile
fragrance of the component. It is
incredibly concentrated oil which
contains the distinctive aromatic
properties of the plant, in a way, its
essence. The oils are produced usually
through distillation, expression or
solvent extraction.

Copyright 2012 Sozio, Inc.


Copyright 2011 Sozio, Inc.

There are different methods that are


used in order to extract the aromatic
compounds from the raw materials.
The result is often somewhat different
than the original odor since it is
affected by the extracting process.

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101

FRAGRANCE

Perfumes are typically manufactured to


unfold, over time. They are formulated
based on 3 Notes Top Notes, Middle
Notes and Base Notes. Each of these
notes represents a different group of
scents within the perfumes fragrance.
The fragrance gradually develops over
time as a new note takes over from the
previous note.

Base notes Are noticed just before


the middle notes fade. They consist
of large and heavier scent
molecules that evaporate slowly
and can be detected even after 24
hours.
The middle and base notes are the
two that are at the core of the
perfumes fragrance.

Top notes Give us the first immediate


impression of the fragrance. They are
usually strong, sharp scents. These scents
are made of light molecules and
generally last a matter of 10-30 minutes
before they evaporate.
Middle notes Are noticed as the top
notes evaporate. They are more
rounded, mellow scents. They usually
appear some 10-45 minutes after
applying the perfume and last longer
than the top notes.

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S O Z I O , I N C .
P AG E 1 4

THE
FRAGRANCE
WHEEL

THE FRAGRANCE
WHEEL

FRAGRANCE FAMILIES:
Each fragrance can be put into a
fragrance family, grouping it with
many other similar fragrances.
Commonly there are Four main
groups (Citrus, Fougere, Oriental and
Chypre), which are then divided into
sub groups.
Feminine fragrances have floral
tones and male fragrances have
Fougere style fragrances.

Copyright
2011
Sozio,
Inc.
Copyright
2012
Sozio,
Inc.

www.jesozio.com
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101

FRAGRANCE

Aldehydic
Aldehyde C-11
Aldehyde C-12 MNA
Animalic
Ambrarome Absolute
Aromatic
Lavender Oil
Balsamic
Fir Needle Oil
Camphoraceous
Eucalyptol
Citrus
Lemon Oil California
Orange Oil

Green
Leaf Acetate
Marine
Calone Solution @10% in DPG
Mint
Spearmint Oil
Spice
Eugenol
Sweet
Vanillin
Wood
Sandalwood Oil
Cedarwood Oil

Floral
Orange Flower
Fruit
Strawberry Natural Absolute

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101

FRAGRANCE

The common fragrance family groups are listed:

Fougre (pronounced foo-jer): Fougere


fragrances are one of the most popular mens
families. These will often contain Lavender and
Oakmoss. Examples include: Masculine: Polo Sport
by Ralph Lauren, Platinum Egoiste by Chanel, Cool
Water by Davidoff, Jazz by YSL, Paco Rabanne
pour homme.
Floral: The majority of feminine fragrances are
floral. Some are a bouquet of different flowers,
with each individual flower complementing the
others; some use one main flower and
complement it with other notes and accords;
others are very simple and can just be the scent of
a flower alone, which are also called single-note
scents. Examples include: Masculine: Agua
Lavanda by Puig, Insens by Givenchy Feminine:
Chanel No 19, Anas Anas by Cacharel, LAir du
Temps by Nina Ricci, Charlie by Revlon.
Oriental fragrances are common in both male
and female fragrances. They are often warm,
spicy and sweet and contain ingredients such as
Vanilla and Tonka bean. Sandalwood is also
common in these fragrances. Examples include:
Masculine: Obsession for Men by Calvin Klein,
Joop! Homme by Joop!, Le Male by Jean Paul
Gaultier, Equipage by Hermes, Egoiste by Chanel
Feminine: Jean Paul Gaultier Classique, Angel,
Opium by Yves Saint Laurent

Copyright 2012 Sozio, Inc.

Chypre (pronounced sheep-r): A Chypre


fragrance contains woody, mossy, and floral
notes. This kind of fragrance will also contain
Oakmoss, Sandalwood, Patchouli,
Bergamot, and Vetiver. Examples include:
Masculine: Givenchy Gentleman, Fendi
Uomo, Vetiver by Guerlain, Aramis, Van
Cleef and Arpels, Quorum by Puig, Antaeus
by Chanel, 212 Men by Carolina Herrera.
Feminine: Cuir de Russe by Chanel, Mitsouko
by Guerlain, Chypre de Coty.
Marine: The Marine fragrance family is
relatively new and is used to describe scents
that evoke a feeling of the sea air. An
ingredient called calone is used to give the
marine scent.Examples include: Masculine:
Kenzo Pour Homme, LEau DIssey pour
Homme by Issey Miyake, New West for Him
by Aramis Feminine: Escape by Calvin Klein,
Inis by Fragrances of Ireland, Aquawoman
by Rochas.
Citrus: The earliest colognes were in the
citrus family. Citrus scents are fresh and very
enlivening. Examples include: Masculine:
Eau Sauvage by Dior, D&G Masculine by
Dolce & Gabbana, Happy by Clinique.
Feminine: Cristalle by Chanel, Green Tea by
Elizabeth Arden, Diorella by Christian Dior,
4711 Fragrance by Muelhens.
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101

FRAGRANCE

Drakkar Noir
Created: 1982

by

For: Men

Guy Laroche
Type: Aromatic Fougere

Top Notes

Basil, Rosemary, Verbena,


Lavender

Heart Note

Juniper, Coriander, Cinnamon,


Angelica

Base Note

Oakmoss, Fir, Patchouli, Vetiver

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101

FRAGRANCE

Anais Anais
Created: 1978

by

For: Women

Cacharel
Type: Floral Muguet

Top notes

Bergamot, Galbanum, Hyacinth,


Honeysuckle

Heart note

Lily, Lily of the Valley, Rose,


Ylang-Ylang

Base note

Cedarwood, Sandal, amber,


Oakmoss

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101

S O Z I O , I N C .
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FRAGRANCE

Le Male
Created: 1995

by

Gaultier

For: Men

Type: Oriental Fougere

Top notes

Mint, Lavender, Bergamot

Heart note

Cinnamon, Cumin, Orange,


Blossom

Base note

Vanilla, Tonka, Sandal, Cedar

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101

FRAGRANCE

212 Men
Created: 1999

by

Carolina Herrera

For: Men

Type: Chypre

Top notes

Bergamot, Lavender, Green

Heart note

Gardenia, Pepper, Ginger

Base note

Sandalwood, Vetiver, Incense,


Musk

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21

101

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FRAGRANCE

LEau dIssey Pour Femme by


Created: 1992

For: Women

Issey Miyake

Type: Marine

Top notes

Lotus, Freesia, Cyclamen, Melon

Heart note

Peony, Carnation, Lily, Lily of the


Valley

Base note

Cedar, Musk, Amber, Sadal

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101

FRAGRANCE

4711

by

Created: 1722

Muelhens
For: Unisex

Type: Citrus

Top Notes

Orange Oil, Peach, Basil,


Bergamot And Lemon

Heart Notes

Cyclamen, Lily, Melon, Jasmine


And Bulgarian Rose

Base Notes

Patchouli, Tahitian Vetiver, Musk,


Sandalwood, Oakmoss And
Cedar
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THE ABCS OF
FRAGRANCE

S O Z I O , I N C .
P AG E 2 3

DICTIONARY OF FRAGRANCE TERMS:


An A to Z Glossary of Perfume Lingo

Learn the lingo of fragrance fanatics,


so you can talk like a perfumista.
This glossary defines some commonly
used terms in the world of perfume
and fragrance.

Copyright
2011
Sozio,
Inc.
Copyright
2012
Sozio,
Inc.

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101

FRAGRANCE

Chanel no.5, an ancient mystery for evermore


history
What do I wear in bed? Why, Chanel No. 5, of
course.
Answered by ever popular with the rich and
sophisticated, Marilyn Monroe.
Interesting and true, the signature fragrance
Chanel No. 5 was created after a fortune teller
told Coco Chanel that her lucky number was five.
It was released on the fifth day of the fifth month
of the year, May 5th 1921. Ernext Beaux also
created four other perfumes for Chanel; they are
the little known Bois dIlles, No. 22, Cuir de Russie,
and Gardenie. However, Gardenie has recently
been re-released by the House in 2005 with
international acclaim, a scent that fuses jasmine
with musks.

This eighty-something year old fragrance


is one of the best-selling perfumes in the
world. It actually made history as it has
been generated by mixing eighty natural
and artificial scents and for the first time
people could not identify what it was.
Before Chanel No. 5 was made, perfumes
were just flower scents with poetic names,
and some people consider Chanel No. 5
to be a first real perfume.

The big novelty, however, was the aldehydes. The


legend says that the extensive amount of
aldehydes used in Chanel No. 5 was in fact the
result of a mishap in the lab. Whether this is true or
one of many myths created about this icon, who
knows?

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101

FRAGRANCE
Fragrance Collection 11-12
Whats new for 2011-2012? Skin tones and ultra-dark blacks, precious woods, sweet treats, bouquets of white
flowers, optimism

New for her


Which of the new launches is for you? Its
true that once again, the fall season offers
an embarrassment of riches. For women
seeking mystery and seduction, Givenchy
unveils Dahlia Noir. For fans of gourmand
scents, the choice is vast: how about
mischief-filled Prada Candy?

INCENSE
TRADE ROUTES
Powdery scents and hues are also in. Check out:
Chanels N19 Poudr, for its blend of iris and
cottony musks. Diesel promises an aphrodisiac effect
for its woodsy-gourmand new fragrance, Loverdose,
which comes in a surprising, multi-facetted heartshaped bottle. Burberry presents Body, a perfume
announced as the most exciting launch weve ever
done.

Several newer luxury houses, like Bottega Veneta and Elie Saab are
entering the world of perfume, and Valentino is making a very visible
comeback, with a perfume christened Valentina.
The stars are back in force, too, including Cline Dion, with Signature;
Beyonc, with Pulse; Jennifer Lopez, with Love & Light And lets not
forget singing sensation Justin Bieber, with his first fragrance for women,
Someday, a huge hit in the USA.

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101

FRAGRANCE
Fragrance Collection 11-12
Whats new for 2011-2012? Skin tones and ultra-dark blacks, precious woods, sweet treats, bouquets of white
flowers, optimism

INCENSE
TRADE ROUTES
For him or for both: whats new?
For men, the most hyped launch is
probably Jean Paul Gaultiers Kokorico,
a woody-gourmand scent in a
polymorphous, half-torso, half-face
bottle. Couturiers Dolce & Gabbana
invite men to act Le Fou (The Fool);
Hugo Boss suggests smelling Just
Different. And Azzaro has recruited
singer Julian Casablancas for their new
fragrance in a microphone bottle:
Decibel.

Theres also been a lot of attention trained on


the return of Calvin Klein, with ck one shock, a
duo with a rebellious and trendy style. Black
for him; white for her: be careful, these new ck
ones are not meant to be shared!
The following scents, however, are meant for
him and her to share: Penhaligons tonic
Juniper Sling, with its waves of British gin
Serge Lutenss angry yet elegant Vitriol
dillet, and delicate Eau cHic by Parfums
Nicola. As for oud wood, it is still a star in rare
scents. For him or her, Van Cleefs Precious
Oud reveals oud wood garbed in spicy and
floral tonalities.
The Olfactive Studio has arrived in perfumeries
with a line of photography-inspired unisex
scents christened Chambre Noire (Darkroom),
Still Life and Autoportrait (Self-Portrait). These
fragrances were conceived of collectively,
based on fragranistas on-line discussions. A
first!

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101

FRAGRANCE

NUDE
FRAGRANCE
TRENDS
Nude & Powdery
Pale beige, skin tones, cream, powder
pink and more: after make-up, nude
tones are coming to perfume. Several
designers have adopted this key color
trend for their bottles or their ads.
For their first fragrances, Bottega
Veneta and Elie Saab, for instance,
respectively went with a somewhat
leathery chypre scent and a whitefloral bouquet.

Copyright 2012 Sozio, Inc.

&
POWDERY
For women who love nude tones,
Valentino has adorned the bottle for
Valentina a floriental with a white truffle
note with a floral brooch in a trio of
neutral nude shades. For Givenchys
powdery-chypry Dahlia Noir and Nina
Riccis LAir, the shade takes on pinkish
accents.
A chic blend of couture sophistication
and vintage softness emanates from
each of these new scents.

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S O Z I O , I N C .
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101

FRAGRANCE

FRAGRANCE
TRENDS
Ultra-black
Black is back for men, after an absence of
several years. Its all over bottles, for everything
from fresh scents to fuller-bodied ones. Whats
new is that designers are pushing the envelope
all the way to absolutely opaque black bottles,
unlike what they were doing until recently.
This ultra-black trend carries a message of
strength and self-confidence, and will suit young
city-dwellers looking for trendy, sexy scents
perfectly. Hugo Just Different, a woody, fresh
and fruity scent, and Armani Code Sport, a
sparkling spicy-citrus scent, are both riding that
wave.

Copyright 2012 Sozio, Inc.

ULTRA
BLACK
But more powerful woody-orientals like
Gaultiers Kokorico, Calvin Kleins ck one
shock for him, and Azzaros Decibel, with
cocoa, tobacco and aldehyde facets
respectively have chosen that color
code, too. Montblancs neo-classical
fougre, Legend, also comes in opaque
black.
The intense black trend is still relatively rare
for women. But Cacharel did choose it for
Amor Amor Forbidden Kiss, a coffeeinflected gourmand scent, redolent of the
temptation of forbidden fruit.

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101

FRAGRANCE

OVERDOSE
OF
OPTIMISM

Overdose of Optimism
While economists may say that the crisis isnt
over yet, designers beg to differ! Fragrance
houses are projecting a massive message of
optimism in their latest launches. Yves Rocher,
for instance, christened their latest perfume
Moment de Bonheur (Moment of Happiness).
The gentle, cheerful scent reveals a rose with
green and woody facets. The late-50s, early60s, French New Wave cinema-inspired ad for
Nina Riccis LAir highlights the sense of carefree happiness with charmingly retro music. True
to its name, the more modern and colorful ad
for Kenzo Madly focuses on being madly happy.

Copyright 2012 Sozio, Inc.

Even packaging is all about good cheer


and joie de vivre. Two cases in point:
Prada Candys bright pink box with a lighthearted drawing of a young woman, and
the extravagant tulle-topped cap for Vera
Wangs Lovestruck.
As a trend, optimism is essentially but not
exclusively feminine. Paul Smith, has
launched Optimistic as a his-and-hers
duo. Twice as many reasons to look at the
bright side!

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101

FRAGRANCE

Fragrance is everywhere. In your


soap, your toothpaste, your
shampoo, your conditioner, your
hairdressing, your deodorant, your
polish, your washing-up liquid, your
washing powder, your make-up,
your hand cream, your lip salve,
your fabric conditioner, your fly
spray, your everything. Even your
fragrance-free things have "odor
neutralizers" in them to take away
their intrinsically nasty smells.

Copyright 2012 Sozio, Inc.

Today the fragrance industry is faced with


so many rules and regulations. What was
once an art is now cripled but as chemist
and perfume critic Luca Turin wrote:
"Nobody ever died from wearing Mitsouko,
but lots of babies were born as a result of
it. With that said enjoy, appreciate and
embrace the world of fragrance!

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101

FRAGRANCE

Odor Identification

This test requires the individual to associate odors with objects or sensations. The
candidate smells the sample and records their odor impression. Partial credit is
given for answers which have an association with the odor, yet do not specifically
identify it. Individuals who score high on this portion of the quiz are good
candidates for panels whose objectives include concept appropriateness,
fragrance modification or preference.
Instructions:
Please identify the odor sample given to you by the instructor. Use as many words
as you need to identify the odor. Partial credit is given for identifying an odor very
similar to the sample.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Copyright 2012 Sozio, Inc.

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D I S C O V E R

fashion home dcor fragrance beauty candles innovations trends

SOZIO
A

N E W

W O R L D

O F

F R A G R A N C E S

ALL THERE IS TO KNOW ABOUT FRAGRANCE

FRAGRANCE 101
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

Please Contact Tracey Lundquist at traceyl@jesozio.com or 732-572-5600

51 Ethel Road West Piscataway, NJ 732-572-5600


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