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Presentation on Interest Rate Risk

Management of a Commercial Bank in


Bangladesh
Prepared for:
Course Teacher : Tahmina Akhter
Assistant Professor, Department of Finance
Management of Financial Institutions
Prepared By:
Kazi Omer Hasan ; ID#24036
Ismat Jerin Chetona ; ID#24065
Pallab Hossain Tushar ; ID#23016
Mobin Hossain ; ID#23057

Chapter 1-Introduction
This term paper provides an overview of the issues associated with understanding and
managing interest rate risk. It is intended to familiarize users with the key concepts.This
may necessitate users making further enquiries to more fully understand these issues.
The paper is supported by two appendices one outlines key terminology and the other
provides a description of the key financial instruments which are associated with
interest rate risk management.
Defining and Managing interest rate risk
Definition what is interest rate risk?
Interest rate risk should be managed where fluctuations in interest rate impact on the
organizations profitability. In an organization where the core operations are something
other than financial services, such financial risk should be appropriately managed, so
that the focus of the organization is on providing the core goods or services without
exposing the business to financial risks.
An adverse movement in interest rate risk may potentially:
increase borrowing costs for borrowers;
reduce returns for investors
reduce profitability of financial services providers such as banks; and
reduce the net present value (NPV) of organizations due to the effect of changes in
the discount rate (interest rate) on the value of financial instruments, hedges and
the return on projects.

Chapter 2
Sources of Interest Rate Risk
Interest rate risk can arise from a number of sources:
Where interest costs fluctuate according to interest rate movements during the life of
the
loan;
Resetting of interest rates on an entitys loans from banks or other lenders;
Resetting of interest rates on short-term investments such as bank deposits, commercial
paper, bank bills and so on;
The impact of interest rate changes on the value of long-term financial assets and
liabilities. For example, the value of a bond will fall as interest rates increase so
investors in such instruments will initially benefit from a decrease in interest rates and
similarly borrowers of long-term funds may initially suffer an economic loss as rates
fall because their liabilities will increase. These economic gains and losses will only be
realized if the investment or liability is realized prior to maturity otherwise the
economic gain or loss represents an opportunity gain or a loss at the time that interest
rates changed;
Derivatives e.g. interest rate swaps the value of these instruments will change as
interest rates change, representing either an opportunity gain or a loss (or real gain or
loss where the transaction is finalized prior to maturity);
Early payment discount offered and received. For example, discount rates offered for
early payment by debtors may be higher than the organization's cost of funds;

Forward foreign exchange rates are affected by the differential between domestic
interest rates and foreign rates. For example, as Australian interest rates increase
relative to offshore rates, then the cost of hedging imports will increase and the cost of
hedging exports will fall;
Financial institutions are concerned about the interest rates on assets and liabilities
resetting at different times. This is known as mismatch risk or reprising risk. For
example, if the interest rates on its assets increase more than its liabilities then the
organization's profit will increase, and vice-versa.

Chapter 3
Impact of adverse movements in interest rates on organizations
1.Borrowers in general concerned about rising rates
interest loans and associated hedges (the opposite applies where rates fall)
Investors in general concerned about falling rates
Chapter 4 -Methods to measure interest rate risk
There are many ways to measure interest rate risk which can range from very simple
measures to very sophisticated measures which are mathematically complex and
require significant computing power. This guide provides some examples of the
simpler measures which can be applied and understood by most organizations.

Sensitivity analysis

-- Simple analysis measurement of the impact of small changes of interest rates on the
accounting income or economic value. For example, if interest rates increase by 1 per cent now,
what will be the impact on the accounting income? Usually calculated on spreadsheets
-- Advanced measurement of the impact of multiple changes in interest rates and other
related variables on the entitys financial health. For example, if the entity is 50 per cent hedged
and interest rates increase by 1 per cent and earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and
amortization (EBITDA) fall by 10 per cent, what will be the impact on the entitys interest cover
ratio? This information may be presented in a tabular form.
-- Stress test modeling the impact of a large change in interest rates on borrowings or
investments in accounting terms or risk outcomes. This type of measurement is frequently used
by financial institutions.
Re-pricing profiles (graphical representation of the interest reset of assets and liabilities over
time)
-- For entities this may be a graphical representation of the interest re-pricing of assets or
liabilities over time.
Chapter 5-Methods to manage interest rate risk
Before using financial instruments to manage interest rate risk, the organization should develop a
policy after determining the risk appetite of key stakeholders such as directors. Guidance in this
regard can be found in the CPA publication, Understanding and Managing Financial Risk.

There are many ways that interest rate risk can be managed.
-- A simple method is when the borrower requests its lender to fix the interest rate of its
loan for the period of the loan.
-- Where a borrower has a floating rate cost of funds, it can protect itself from rising
interest rates through an interest rate cap or option. Essentially this is like insuring
against rising rates. If the rates rise, the borrower is protected. If rates fall, the borrower
retains the benefit of the clearance in interest rates. As a borrower you pay a premium
for this protection from rising interest rates.
-- An alternative product for a borrower on floating rates would be to consider using an interest
rate swap. This product allows the borrower to lock in its floating rates for one to five years with
its own bank, or another bank if it has the credit limits. Though you do not pay an upfront fee, if
the rate falls below the fixed swap rate you have to pay the counterparty the difference.
-- Similarly borrowers can convert a fixed rate loan back to a floating loan using a derivative,
such as an interest rate swap.
-- Investors can invest in fixed rate assets or alternatively invest in floating rate assets and fix the
rate using an interest swap. Fixed rate assets may offer investors a better rate of return. However,
investors should be aware that they may experience significant losses on fixed rate assets should
interest rates increase and they terminate the investment prior to its maturity.

Changes in market interest rates might adversely affect a bank's financial condition.

Changes in interest rates affect both the current earnings (earnings perspective) as
well as the net worth of the bank (economic value perspective).

Re-pricing risk is the most apparent source of interest rate risk for a bank
Re-pricing risk is gauged by comparing the volume of a banks assets that mature or
re-price within a given time period with the volume of liabilities that do so.
The short term impact : the banks Net Interest Income (NII).
In a longer term : changes in interest rates impact the cash flows on the assets,
liabilities and off-balance sheet items.
giving rise to a risk to the net worth of the bank arising out of all re-pricing
mismatches and other interest rate sensitive position.
Interest rate risk may arise either from trading portfolio or non-trading portfolio. The
trading portfolio of the Bank consists of Government treasury bills of 28 days
maturity.

Interest rate risk is monitored through the use of re-pricing gap analysis and duration
analysis. Interest rate risk is further monitored through the ALCO.

STATEMENT OF REPRICING GAP


(Asset & Liability Maturity Analysis)
STATEMENT OF REPRICING GAP
(Asset and Liability Maturity Analysis)
As at December 31, 20130
Not More than
From 1 to 3
Assets:
1 Month
Month
Cash in hand
5,769,261,088
Balance with other Banks & Financial Institutions
807,453,658
and Agents 63,093,276
Money at Call & Short Notice
Investment
1,867,566,359
12,748,348,547
Loans & Advances
34,355,437,436
33,818,860,912
Premises & Fixed Assets
51,457,536
102,915,072
Other Assets
23,087,732
1,685,100,321
Total Assets:
42,874,263,809
48,418,318,128

From 3 to 12
Months
151,966
3,948,636,636
46,707,588,279
164,716,522
2,323,714,250
53,144,807,653

From 1 Year
to 5 Years
43,604,902
29,030,155,201
1,114,275,544
1,234,935,105
31,422,970,752

From 5 Years
and above
11,873,385,700
38,331,360,065
9,676,718,401
4,973,354,988
3,153,625,328
68,008,444,482

Total
17,642,646,788
870,698,900
56,939,516,509
153,588,760,229
6,406,719,662
8,420,462,736
243,868,804,824

Liabilities:
Borrowing from Bangladesh Bank, Other Banks,
1,968,953
Financial Institutions 1,166,250,000
2,690,041,929
3,858,260,882
Deposits
31,319,060,024
59,261,788,585
32,818,144,014 25,220,821,396
51,205,910,108 199,825,724,127
Other Accounts
2,081,417,055
2,081,417,055
Provision and Other Liabilities
41,042,700
2,178,001,273
547,216,548
357,731,192
11,949,793,939 15,073,785,652
Total Liabilities:
33,443,488,732
61,439,789,858 34,531,610,562 28,268,594,517
63,155,704,047 220,839,187,716
Net Liquidity Gap:
9,430,775,077
(13,021,471,730) 18,613,197,091
3,154,376,235
4,852,740,435 23,029,617,108
Exposed to
Reinvestment risk Refinancing risk
Reinvestment risk Reinvestment risk Reinvestment risk
Cumulative Net Liquidity Gap
9,430,775,077
(3,590,696,653) 15,022,500,438 18,176,876,673
23,029,617,108

Net Liquidity Gap:


Not more
than 1
Month

interest rates rise by 1%

NII = (GAP) * R= (RSA- RSL)


R

9,430,775,077

0.01

94307750.77

1-3 months

(13,021,471,730)

0.01

-130214717.3

3-12 months

18,613,197,091

0.01

186131970.9

3,154,376,235

0.01

31543762.35

4,852,740,435

0.01

48527404.35

1-5 years
5 yrs and
above

Total :

Tk. 230296171.1

We assume that Interest risk decreases 1%, then,


Net Liquidity Gap:
Not more than 1
Month
1-3 months
3-12 months
1-5 years
5 yrs and above

interest rates fall by 1%

NII = (GAP) * R= (RSA- RSL)


R

9430775077

-0.01

-94307750.77

-13021471730
18613197091

-0.01
-0.01

130214717.3
-186131970.9

3154376235
4852740435

-0.01
-0.01

-31543762.35
-48527404.35

NII = (GAP) * R= (RSA- RSL) R


We assume interest rate increase by 1%, then,
1 month bucket the Net liquidity gap is tk. 9430775077
NII = (GAP) * R= (RSA- RSL) R
= 94307750.77

Maturity grouping of rate sensitive assets and liabilities of the bank shows
significant positive gap in the first quarter and moderate gap during the rest three
quarters.
If market rates shifts upward by one percent the bank will enjoy a positive earning
to the tune of Tk. 230296171.1 and vice versa.
The impact is very insignificant compared to total revenue of the bank and also
within the acceptable limit as stipulated by Bangladesh Bank.

Market Risk Management


Market risk : the risk of losses in on and off-balance sheet positions arising
from adverse movements in market prices which may impact the Banks
earnings and capital.
The purpose : to minimize the risk of loss and maximize profit in trading
portfolio.
The risk may pertain to interest rate related instruments (interest rate
risk), equities (equity price risk) and foreign exchange rate risk (currency
risk). Besides, the Bank is also exposed to liquidity or funding risk.The Bank
has adopted Standardized Approach (SA) for computation of capital
charge market risk

Market Risk management is guided by well laid policies, guidelines,


processes and systems for the identification, measurement, monitoring
and reporting of exposures against various risk limits.
The Asset Liability Management Committee meets periodically and
reviews the positions of trading groups, interest rate sensitivity, sets
deposit and benchmark lending rates and determines the asset liability
management strategy
Treasury back office monitors Risk limits including position limits and
stop loss limits for the trading book and reviews periodically.

Maturity Method has been prescribed by Bangladesh Bank in


determining capital against market risk.

In the maturity method, long or short positions in debt securities


and other sources of interest rate exposures, including derivative
instruments, are slotted into a maturity ladder comprising 13 timebands (or 15 time-bands in case of low coupon instruments).

Fixed-rate instruments are allocated according to the residual term


to maturity and floating-rate instruments according to the residual
term to the next repricing date.
In Standardized (rule based) Approach the capital requirement for
various market risks (interest rate risk, price, and foreign exchange
risk) are determined separately.

The Bank also ensures that the capital levels comply with regulatory requirements
and satisfy the external rating agencies and other stakeholders including depositors.
The whole objectives of the capital management process in the Bank are to
ensure that the Bank remains adequately capitalized at all times.

The total capital requirement in respect of market risk is the sum of capital
requirement calculated for each of these market risk sub-categories.
Capital Charge for Interest Rate Risk = Capital Charge for Specific Risk + Capital
Charge for General Market Risk;
Interest rate risk Consolidate Tk. 219.60m
Assessment of capital adequacy is carried out in conjunction with the capital
adequacy reporting to the Bangladesh Bank.
The Bank has maintained capital adequacy ratio on the basis of Consolidated
and Solo are 12.03% & 12.04% respectively as against the minimum regulatory
requirement of 10%.
The Bank maintains capital levels that are sufficient to absorb all material risks.

INTEREST RATE RISK ANALYSIS (FOR 1% CHANGE IN THE MARKET RATE OF INTEREST)

The increase (decline) in earnings or economic value (or relevant measure used by
management) for upward and downward rate shocks according to managements
method for measuring IRRBB, broken down by currency (as relevant).

Senior management of Prime Bank develops processes that

identify, measure, monitor and control risks incurred by the bank;

maintains an organizational structure that clearly assigns responsibility, authority


and reporting relationships;
ensures that delegated responsibilities are being carried out effectively; sets
appropriate internal control policies; and

monitors the adequacy and effectiveness of the internal control system.

They ensure proper control through techniques such as top level reviews,

activity controls, physical controls, compliance with exposure limit,

approvals & authorizations and verification & reconciliation of transactions of the


Bank.

Appendix 1
Terminology ( Key Terms Which May be Used)
Floating rate typically this means the interest rate on a borrowing, investment or
hedge resets (reprices) in less than 12 months.
Fixed rate typically this means the interest rate on a borrowing, investment or hedge
resets (reprices) in more than 12 months or the life of the loan or investment.
Yield curve a graphical representation of expected interest rates by the financial
market over time. Where rates increase over time, then the yield curve is said to be
positive or normal. Where rates decrease over time, then the yield curve is said to be
inverse. An inverse yield curve implies that financial markets expect interest rates to
fall.
Outright interest rate risk the impact of a change in the overall level of interest rate
risk. For example, if an investor holds a fixed interest bond and interest rates generally
increase, then the investor will experience a loss.
Basis risk the change in the interest rate of one instrument relative to another. For
hedges to work perfectly, the value of the hedge must change exactly in line with the
financial instrument being hedged as interest rates change. If they dont then there is
basis risk.
Yield curve risk Financial institutions may be reliant, for their hedges to be
effective, on interest rates changing evenly across the yield curve. If this does not
happen, then the institution will experience yield curve risk.

Repricing and repayment risk interest rate repricing may not be the same as the contractual
repayment term of the financial instrument. For example, a floating rate note may be repayable in
five years (which is its repayment risk) but have an interest rate reset (interest rate repricing) of
90 days. Therefore, the repayment profile of a floating rate note is different from its repricing
profile.
Interest cover covenants Banks typically require borrowings to have covenants. One
covenant relates the amount of cash (typically measured by earnings before interest, tax,
depreciation and amortisation (EBITDA)) to interest expense. If interest rates increase, and the
organisation has not fixed its borrowing rate, then the ratio of cash to interest cost may fall below
the ratio (covenant) agreed by the bank. If this happens, the loan may become immediately
payable or the bank may impose a penalty rate of interest.
Indexes Loan agreements and derivatives may have a floating rate which periodically needs to
be reset. To ensure fairness, often the rate setting is done by reference to a floating rate index
such as BBSW (the bank bill swap rate) or BBSY (the bank bill swap bid rate) (which are both
shown as pages on the Reuters information services).
Appendix 2
Typical financial instrument and hedges
Interest ratio swaps (IRSs) IRSs allow borrowers or investors to convert a floating rate
borrowing or investment into a fixed rate borrowing or investment for a pre-agreed time,
typically three or five years. The IRS is a separate instrument to the borrowing or investment
instrument. It is overlayed on the borrowing or instrument. For example the borrower will
receive a floating rate (e.g. BBSW) of funds from the IRS counterparty and pay (BBSW) this
through to the loan counterparty (who ideally has arranged the loan to be paid at the BBSW
rate). In return the borrower will pay the swap counterparty the fixed rate (effectively this will
now be the cost of funds). Swaps can be used for any international interest rate exposure.

Options Options are similar to an insurance contract. For a premium, a borrower can insure
against the cost of funds in all or some of its borrowings exceeding a pre-agreed rate. Similarly
an investor can insure against the rate falling below a pre-agreed rate.
Interest rate
Bank bills/short-term borrowings/investments Bank bills and commercial paper are paper are
short-term instruments, issued at a discount. This means the issuer (borrower) receives less
than the face value at issue and pays the full amount (face value) at maturity. The difference
between the two is known is interest expense. Bank bills differ from commercial paper in that

the issuer of bank bills has entered into an agreement with a bank to guarantee payment
should the issuer default. This makes bank bills attractive to investors. With commercial
paper, the investor must rely on the credit worthiness of the issuer alone.

Bonds Bonds are instruments issued by borrowers to investors. The bond typically
has a face value, maturity date and rate of interest. The interest payable may be fixed
(i.e. a coupon) or be periodically reset at a margin above or below an index rate. The
former are known as fixed interest bonds. The latter are known as floating rate bonds.
Forward rate agreements (FRAs) FRAs allow a borrower or investor to lock in a
borrowing or investment rate for a future period. FRAs are similar to IRSs but only
cover a single period. For example, a borrower may wish to lock in some of its
borrowing cost starting in three months for six months. The borrower could use a 3 v 6
FRA for this purpose which would lock in the rate at the beginning of the six-month
period. FRAs are usually to manage short-term rates up to 18 months and can be used
for any major currency.