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QR = Q1(C1 CD)

CD CU
Where QR = STREAM DISCHANGE
QI = flow rate of feeder stream
CI = salt concentration in feeder stream
CD = salt concentration at the downstream station
CU = salt concentration at the upstream station

Cr = CwQw + CuQu
Qr
Where Cr = concentration in the river downstream, mg/L

Cw = concentration in waste discharge, mg/L


Cu = upstream river concentration , mg/L

Water quality
Qu = upstream river flow, ft3/s

Qw = waste discharge rate, ft3/s


Qr = Qu + Qw = river flow at downstream station,
ft3/s

Mixing Zone Calculations. An industrial plant is proposed for


location on a stream. The indistry would disharge wastewater
containing 1300 mg/L of total dissolved solids (TDS) at a rate of
100 ft3/s. the receivingstream has an average velocity of 1.5 ft/s,
an average width of 45 ft, and an average depth of 2 ft with a
TDS concentration of 310 mg/L. will this proposed plant
disharge result in violation of the state stream standard of 500
mg/L?

Cw = 1300 mg/L

Qw = 100 ft3/s

Cu = 310 mg/L

Qu = (1.5 ft3/s)(45 ft)(2 ft) = 135 ft3

Qr = 100 ft3/s + 135 ft3/s = 235 ft3/s

Cr = (1.300 mg/L)(100 ft3/s) + (310 mg/L(135 ft3/s)


235 ft3/s
= 731 mg/L

Q1 = (QO)(C1)
CO
Where QO = runolf before development, ft3/s
QI = runoff after development, ft3/s
CO = runoff coefficient before develpoment
CI = runoff coefficient after development

Table :Runoff coefficient

Land uses

Runoff coefficient

Business :

Downtown

0.70 to 0.95

Neighborhood

0.50 to 0.70

Residential :
Single-family

0.30 to 0.50

Multi-units, detached

0.40 to 0.60

Multi-units, attached

0.60 to 0.75

Residential (subusban)

0.25 to 0.40

Apartement

0.50 to 0.70

Industrial :
Light

0.50 to 0.80

Heavy

0.60 to 0.90

Parks, cemeteries

0.10 to 0.25

Playgrounds

0.20 to 0.35

Railroad yard

0.20 to 0.35

Unimproved

0.10 to 0.30

Surface types :
Pavement :
Asphalt and concrete

0.70 to 0.95

Brick

0.70 to 0.85

Roofs

0.75 to 0.95

Lawns, sandy soil :


Flat, 2 percent

0.05 to 0.10

Average, 2 to 7 percent

0.10 to 0.15

Steep, 7 percent

0.15 to 0.20

Lawns, heavy soil :


Flat, 2 percent

0.13 to 0.17

Average, 2 to 7 percent

0.18 to 0.22

Steep, 7 percent

0.25 to 0.35

Example 2 : Rational Method. It is proposed that a 100-acre


underdeveloped watershed be developed into a light industrial park.
For a design rainfall intensity of 2.0 in/hr, what impact will the
proposed development have on runoff ?
Given information is that a = 100 acre and I = 2.0 in/hr. consulting
Table 6.6 we find that Co = 0.20 and Ci = 0.65. therefore, the present
condition can shown by :
Qo = CoIA = (0.20)(2.0 in/hr)(100 acres) = 40 ft3/s

Future condition are :


Qo= QoC = (40 ft3/s)(0.65) = 130 ft3/s

Co

(0.20)

Increase = (130 ft3/s 40 ft3/s) x 100% = 225%


40 ft3/s

E=R . K . L . S . C . P

Where E = average soil loss, ton/acre .yr

R = factor expressing the erosion potential of


average rainfall in the area
K = soil erodibility factor, ton/acre .yr

L = length of slope factor


S = slope factor
C = cropping management factor
P = erosion control practice factor

SEBUAH RUMAH SAKIT BERADA DI BANTARAN SUNGAI


MAHAKAM YANG MEMBUANG LIMBAHNYA KE SUNGAI DENGAN
KONSENTRASI :
BOD 300 mg/L. COD 150 mg/L, DO 100 mg/L, TDS 1500 mg/L DAN Hg
0,0055 mg/L, Coliform Tinja 4 cfu/L . Bising 24-55 dB, pencahayaan 55-100
lumen, CO 2500, Mikrobiologi udara 45 cfu/m3,
1. DEBIT AIR SUNGAI SEBELUM RS = 100 M3/s
2. DEBIT LIMBAH RS 15 L/s
3. BOD HULU 50 mg/L, COD 30 mg/L, DO 25 mg/L, TDS 175 mg/L DAN
HG 0,2 mg/L
4. HITUNG C1, Q1, C1lb, Q1lb
5. HITUNGLAH BISING, CO dan MIKROBIOLOGI UDARA DALAM
RUANG RUMAH SAKIT?
6. HITUNG AIR LARIAN DARI RS TERSEBUT PADA WAKTU HUJAN
TURUN DENGAN INTESNSITAS 15 mm/s, LUAS BANGUNAN
RS.......m2, LUAS AREA ....... Ha, KEMIRINGAN TANAH ........... %
7. APAKAH AIR SUNGAI SUDAH TERCEMAR ATAU BELUM ?
8. KALAU TERCEMAR LANGKAH APA YG HARUS DILAKUKAN

8.Jenis penyakit nosokimial apa saja yang akan


terjadi bila keadaan rumah sakit demikian, baik
pada pasien maupun tenaga medis?
9. Seorang manajer RS, kebijakan apa yang harus
diambil bila kondisi sudah terjadi?
10. Pengelolaan lingkungan apa yang harus
diterapkan di RS ini?
11.