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DRUGS USED TO

AFFECT NERVOUS
SYSTEM

DEFINITION
A pharmaceutical drug, also referred to as a
medicine or (loosely) medication, officially called
medicinal product, can be loosely defined as any
chemical substance or product comprising such
intended for use in the medical diagnosis, cure,
treatment, or prevention of disease. The word
pharmaceutical comes from the Greek word
pharmakeia. The modern transliteration of pharmakeia
is pharmacia.

MEDICINE
FOR CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)

anaesthetics
anticonvulsants/antiepileptics
antidepressants
antihistamines
antipsychotics
Barbiturates
Hypnotics
Psychedelics
Stimulants(including amphetamines)

ANAESTHETIC
An anaesthetic is used to temporarily reduce or take away
sensation, usually so that otherwise painful procedures or
surgery can be performed.
There are two types of anaesthetics:
general, which make the patient unconscious.
local, which numb the part of the body that would otherwise
feel pain.

Examples:
lidocaine (Xylocaine)
procaine (Novocaine)

ANTICONVULSANT/
ANTIEPILEPTIC
The anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs) are a
diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Anticonvulsants are also increasingly being used in the treatment of bipolar
disorder, since many seem to act as mood stabilizers, and for the treatment of
neuropathic pain. The goal of an anticonvulsant is to suppress the rapid and
excessive firing of neurons that start a seizure. Failing this, an effective
anticonvulsant would prevent the spread of the seizure within the brain and
offer protection against possible excitotoxic effects, that may result in brain
damage. Some studies have cited that anticonvulsants themselves are linked to
lowered IQ in children.

Examples:
Tegretol

Neurontin

Trileptal

ANTIDEPRESSANT
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major
depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia,
anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, eating
disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases,
dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraines, attention-deficit
hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance abuse and sleep
disorders. They can be used alone or in combination with
other medications.
Examples:
Sertraline

Citalopram

Fluoxetine

ANTIHISTAMINES
A histamine antagonist (commonly called an antihistamine)
is a pharmaceutical drug that inhibits the action of histamine
by either blocking its attachment to histamine receptors, or
inhibiting the enzymatic activity of histidine decarboxylase;
catalyzing the transformation of histidine into histamine
(atypical antihistaminics). It is commonly used for the relief
of allergies caused by intolerance of proteins

Examples:
Allegra (fexofenadine)
Benadryl
(diphenhydramine)

ANTIPSYCHOTIC
Antipsychotics (also known as neuroleptics or major
tranquilizers)[1] are a class of psychiatric medication primarily
used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations,
or disordered thought), particularly in schizophrenia and
bipolar disorder, and is increasingly being used in the
management of non-psychotic disorders (ATC code N05A). The
word neuroleptic originates from the Greek word lepsis
("seizure" or "fit").[2]

Examples:

Geodon
Risperdal

BARBITURATES
Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system
depressants, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of
effects, from mild sedation to total anesthesia. They are also
effective as anxiolytics, hypnotics, and anticonvulsants.
Barbiturates also have analgesic effects; however, these
effects are somewhat weak, preventing barbiturates from
being used in surgery in the absence of other analgesics.

PARKINSON'S DISEASE DRUGS


Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurological disorder
caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain. People who
have Parkinson's disease experience uncontrollable tremors,
develop a characteristic stoop, and eventually become unable
to walk.
Medications such as benztropine, bromocriptine, levodopa,
selegiline, and trihexyphenidyl are used to correct the chemical
imbalance in the brain, thus helping to relieve the symptoms of the
disease (although these medications can have unwanted side effects
of their own). Benztropine and trihexyphenidyl are used to relieve
tremors that are caused by other medications as well.

PSYCHEDELIC
A psychedelic substance is a psychoactive drug whose
primary action is to alter cognition and perception.
Psychedelics are part of a wider class of psychoactive drugs
known as hallucinogens, a class that also includes structurally
unrelated substances such as dissociatives and deliriants.

Examples:
Cannabis
produces
mild
psychedelic effects and may
be the world's most widely
used psychedelic drug.
lysergic acid diethylamide
(LSD)
dimethoxymethylamphetami
ne (DOM or "STP")
methylenedioxymethamphet
amine (MDMA or "ecstasy")

STIMULANTS
Stimulants

act on the central nervous system and are


associated with feelings of extreme well-being, increased
mental and motor activity.
Tend

to speed up the activity of a person's central nervous


system (CNS) including the brain .These drugs often result in
the user feeling more alert and more energetic.
Examples

include cocaine, crack cocaine,


amphetamines (speed) and ecstasy (which is also a
hallucinogen).