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A man pushing his car stopped outside a hotel.

As
soon as he got there he knew he was bankrupt. Why?

A man pushing his car stopped outside a hotel. As


soon as he got there he knew he was bankrupt. Why?

Carl Weismans
Introduction to RF & Wireless
Two Day Seminar

Module 1

Course Objectives
Explain
RF signal behavior
System hardware makeup
Wireless systems operation

Communicate
Using over 300 terms

Have Fun

Daily Schedule
8:30 am 10: 00 am

Fun

10:00 am 10:15 am

Break

10:15 am 11:45 am

Fun

Noon 1:00 pm

Lunch

1:00 pm 2:30 pm

Fun

2:30 pm 2:45 pm

Break

2:45 pm 4:15 pm

Fun

Course Agenda
Day One
Morning (Module 1)
Introduction to RF

Afternoon (Module 2)
RF hardware

Day Two
Morning (Module 3)
Older systems & mobile telephony

Afternoon (Module 4)
Newer systems & the future

Module 1 - Introduction To RF
1. The Basics
2. RF Behavior
3. Modulation
4. Noise

Module 1
1. The Basics
2. RF Behavior
3. Modulation
4. Noise

1. The Basics
Vocabulary
Transmitters & Receivers
Signals

1. The Basics
Vocabulary
Transmitters & Receivers
Signals

Vocabulary
Electronics Terms
Voltage: A potential between 2 points (Volts)
Current: A flow of electrons (Amps)
Power = Voltage x Current (Watts)
Energy = Power x Time (Watt-hours)
AC: Varies with time (e.g., wall outlet)
DC: Constant (e.g. flashlight battery)
The Basics - Vocabulary

Vocabulary
More Electronics Terms
Signal: Electrical energy made to vary in a
predetermined way
Device: An electronic gadget that is indivisible
Component: Same as a device
Circuit: A collection of interconnected devices
RF: Radio Frequency
Wireless: A marketing term
The Basics - Vocabulary

Vocabulary
Prefixes
pico:
nano:
micro:
milli:
Kilo:
Mega:
Giga:

trillionth
billionth
millionth
thousandth
thousand
million
billion

10-12
10-9
10-6
10-3
103
106
109

The Basics - Vocabulary

0.000000000001
0.000000001
0.000001
0.001
1000
1000000
1000000000

Mu Not Moo

The Basics - Vocabulary

1. The Basics
Vocabulary

Transmitters & Receivers


Signals

Transmitters & Receivers


An Interesting Thing To Know
An electrical signal can move from place to
place two different ways:
1) As current on a conductor (e.g. a wire)
2) As invisible waves in the air

The Basics - Transmitters &


Receivers

Transmitters & Receivers


Wireless Communications

The Basics - Transmitters &


Receivers

Transmitters & Receivers


Wireless Communications

The Basics - Transmitters &


Receivers

Transmitters & Receivers


Wireless Communications
Transceiver

The Basics - Transmitters &


Receivers

1. The Basics
Vocabulary
Transmitters & Receivers

Signals

Signals
There Are Two Kinds Of Signals
Analog: Can take any value

Digital: Can take one of two values (high, low)

The Basics - Signals

Analog Signals
A Very Special Analog Signal
Sine wave:

The Basics - Signals

Analog Signals
Properties Of A Sine Wave

Speed

The Basics - Signals

Analog Signals
Properties Of A Sine Wave

Speed
Frequency

The Basics - Signals

Analog Signals
Properties Of A Sine Wave

Speed
Frequency
(Hertz)

The Basics - Signals

Analog Signals
Properties Of A Sine Wave

Speed
Amplitude
Frequency
(Hertz)

The Basics - Signals

Analog Signals
Properties Of A Sine Wave

Speed
Amplitude
Frequency
(Hertz)

Wavelength

Analog Signals
Properties Of A Sine Wave
Phase

90

360

Amplitude
0

180

Frequency
(Hertz)
270

Wavelength

Speed

Analog Signals
A Special Relationship
Frequency x Wavelength = Constant
When you know one you know the other
The constant is usually the speed of light

The Basics - Signals

Visual Depiction

High frequency =
Many waves
Occurring frequently
Close together
The Basics - Signals

Visual Depiction

Low frequency =
Few waves
Occurring infrequently
Far apart
The Basics - Signals

Analog Signals
What Makes Sine Waves Special?
Every analog signal is just a summation of
multiple sine waves

Analog Signals
Why Is All Of This Important?
1) Because everything in the wireless world is
frequency dependent
Components are specified over certain frequencies
Applications are specified over certain frequencies

2) And because it is sine waves that travel through


the air as invisible waves

The Basics - Signals

Analog Signals
Frequencies
Of
Some
Applications

Frequency (Hertz)
60
2,000
530,000

Application
Electrical wall outlet
The human voice
AM radio

54,000,000

VHF television

88,000,000

FM radio

824,000,000
1,850,000,000
11,700,000,000

Cellular phones
PCS phones
DirectTV

Analog Signals
Wavelengths
Of
Some
Applications

Wavelength (meters)
5,000,000
152,500
566

Application
Electrical wall outlet
The human voice
AM radio

VHF television

FM radio

0.3

Cellular phones

0.1

PCS phones

0.02

DirectTV

Analog Signals
Frequency
Bands

Band

Frequency Range

L-Band

1 2 GHz

S-Band

2 4 GHz

C-Band

4 8 GHz

X-Band

8 12 GHz

K-Band

12 40 GHz

The Basics - Signals

Analog Signals
Frequency
Ranges

Term

Frequency Range

RF Frequency

Less Than 1 GHz

Microwave Frequency

Between 1 GHz & 40 GHz

Millimeter Wave Frequency

Greater Than 40 GHz

The Basics - Signals

Digital Signals
An Example Of A Digital Signal

The Basics - Signals

Digital Signals
Properties Of A Digital Signal

Amplitude
(0 or 1)

The Basics - Signals

Digital Signals
Properties Of A Digital Signal

Amplitude
(0 or 1)

Frequency
The Basics - Signals

Digital Signals
Properties Of A Digital Signal

Amplitude
(0 or 1)

Frequency = Data Rate


The Basics - Signals

Digital Signals
Properties Of A Digital Signal

Amplitude
(0 or 1)

Frequency = Data Rate (bits/second)


The Basics - Signals

Analog vs Digital
Analog Signals
Occur naturally
Represent information AND
Travel through the air as invisible waves

Digital Signals
Are man made
Represent information only

Analog to Digital Conversion


How Is It
Done?

Digital Data Rate


Human Voice
Highest frequency = 4000 Hz

Sample Rate
Twice the highest frequency = 8000 samples/sec

Granularity
8 bits/sample

Data Rate
8 (bits/sample) X 8000 (samples/sec) = 64 Kbps

Analog vs Digital
Analog Signals
Advantages: Can travel wirelessly
Disadvantages: Susceptible to noise

Digital Signals
Advantages: Noise resistant, compression
Disadvantages: Expensive RF hardware

The Basics - Signals

The Basics
The end

Module 1
1. The Basics

2. RF Behavior
3. Modulation
4. Noise

2. RF Behavior
Loss & Gain
Decibels
Bandwidth
RF in the Environment
Match

2. RF Behavior
Loss & Gain
Decibels
Bandwidth
RF in the Environment
Match

Energy Is Conserved

Devices
Two Types

Heat

Gain

Heat

Loss

Power Supply

Loss & Gain


Vocabulary
Gain: Also called amplification & power gain
Loss: Also called insertion loss & attenuation

RF Behavior - Loss & Gain

Loss & Gain


Component
Possibilities

Active

Passive

Gain

Amplifier

Impossible

Loss

Many

Many

RF Behavior - Loss & Gain

Loss & Gain


Are Cumulative

Total gain = 100

RF Behavior - Loss & Gain

2. RF Behavior
Loss & Gain

Decibels
Bandwidth
RF in the Environment
Match

Decibels
What's The Problem?
1000 Watts

RF Behavior - Decibels

0.000000000001 Watts

Decibels
Definition

Decibels = 10 x log10(Pout/Pin)

RF Behavior - Decibels

Decibels
The Basics
Measure a change (e.g. output vs input)
Bigger (i.e, gain), decibels are positive
Smaller (i.e., loss) , decibels are negative
Decibels are abbreviated "dB"

RF Behavior - Decibels

Decibels
The Only Math You'll Need To Know
+3dB means 2 times bigger
+10 dB means 10 times bigger
-3dB means 2 times smaller
-10 dB means 10 times smaller
Add and subtract decibels only
RF Behavior - Decibels

Decibel Conversion
Examples
Change

Factors

Decibels

4000

2 x 2 x 10 x 10 x 10

3+3+10+10+10=36 dB

-4000

-36 dB

5000

10 x 10 x 10 x 10 2

10+10+10+10-3=37 dB

8000

2 x 4000

36 dB + 3 dB = 39 dB
37.5 dB 37. 78 dB

6000

RF Behavior - Decibels

Summing Decibels
Recall From Before

Total gain = 100

RF Behavior - Decibels

Summing Decibels
Now With dB

10 dB
Gain

10 dB
Gain

Total gain = 20 dB

RF Behavior - Decibels

Summing Decibels
One More Example

Total change = +19 dB

RF Behavior - Decibels

dBm
What Is It?
A measure of power NOT change

In The RF World
The "standard" unit of power is 1 milliwatt

Definition
dBm = "dB above 1 milliwatt"

RF Behavior - Decibels

dBm
Example
Gain of device = 30 dB
"Change"

Output of device = 30 dBm


"Power"

Output = 30 dB above 1 milliwatt = 30 dBm


RF Behavior - Decibels

dBm Conversion

dBm
Recall From Before
0 dBm

19 dBm

Input = 0 dBm = 1 milliwatt


Total change = +19 dB
Output = 19 dBm 100 milliwatts
RF Behavior - Decibels

dBm
Another Example
20 dBm

39 dBm

Input = 20 dBm = 100 milliwatt


Total change = +19 dB
Output = 39 dBm 10 watts
RF Behavior - Decibels

2. RF Behavior
Loss & Gain
Decibels

Bandwidth
RF in the Environment
Match

Bandwidth
What Is It?
A range of frequencies (in Hertz)
Defined by the highest & lowest frequency

Where Is It Used?
Components
Wireless applications

RF Behavior - Bandwidth

Bandwidth
Example 1
An amplifier provides 30 dB of gain from 75 MHz to
125 MHz. What is its bandwidth?
Highest frequency = 125 MHz
Lowest frequency = 75 MHz
Difference =
50 MHz = Bandwidth

RF Behavior - Bandwidth

Bandwidth
Example 2
Cellular telephony in the US operates between 824 MHz
and 894 MHz. What is the bandwidth?
Highest frequency = 894 MHz
Lowest frequency = 824 MHz
Difference =
70 MHz = Bandwidth

RF Behavior - Bandwidth

Percentage Bandwidth (BW)


What Is It?
Another way to describe bandwidth

How To Calculate It (from previous example)


1. Bandwidth = 70 MHz
2. Ave frequency = (824 + 894)/2 = 859 MHz
3. %BW = 70 MHz/859 MHz x 100% = 8%

RF Behavior - Bandwidth

Bandwidth
Ways To Describe It
Narrowband: %BW < 50%
Wideband: %BW > 50%
Octave: Highest frequency = 2x lowest frequency
Decade: Highest frequency = 10x lowest frequency

RF Behavior - Bandwidth

2. RF Behavior
Loss & Gain
Decibels
Bandwidth

RF in the Environment
Match

RF In The Environment
Free Space Loss
Skin Effect
Absorption
Reflection

RF In The Environment
Free Space Loss
Skin Effect
Absorption
Reflection

Free Space Loss


RF signals spread out as they travel through the air

Power density: Watts per square meter


RF Behavior - RF In The
Environment

Free Space Loss (FSL)


Formula
FSL = A function of frequency & distance
FSL > 120 dB

RF Behavior - RF In The
Environment

Free Space Loss


Recall From Before
1000 Watts

RF Behavior - RF In The
Environment

Free Space Loss


Recall From Before
60 dBm
Free Space Loss = 120 dB

RF Behavior - RF In The
Environment

Free Space Loss


Recall From Before
60 dBm

-120 dB

RF Behavior - RF In The
Environment

Free Space Loss


Recall From Before
60 dBm
- 60 dBm

-120 dB

RF Behavior - RF In The
Environment

Free Space Loss


Recall From Before
60 dBm
Free Space Loss = 120 dB
- 60 dBm

RF Behavior - RF In The
Environment

RF In The Environment
Free Space Loss

Skin Effect
Absorption
Reflection

Skin Effect
What Is It?
When an RF signal is on a conductor, it resides
only on the surface
Signal on the surface

No signal inside
RF Behavior - RF In The
Environment

Skin Effect
What Is The Implication?
RF signals can't penetrate conductors (e.g. metal)
Metal can be used to control airborne RF waves

RF Behavior - RF In The
Environment

RF In The Environment
Free Space Loss
Skin Effect

Absorption
Reflection

Absorption
What Is It?
When RF waves travel through the air, some
things they encounter cause attenuation
Air
Rain
Foliage

RF Behavior - RF In The
Environment

Absorption
And
Absorbed energy gets converted to heat
Heat

RF Behavior - RF In The
Environment

Absorption
Look Familiar?
Heat

RF Behavior - RF In The
Environment

Absorption
What Else?
Also called atmospheric attenuation
Measured in dB

Heat

RF Behavior - RF In The
Environment

Atmospheric
Attenuation

Absorption
Recall From Before
Output Power
Free Space Loss
Absorption

RF Behavior - RF In The
Environment

RF In The Environment
Free Space Loss
Skin Effect
Absorption

Reflection

Reflection
What Is It?
When RF waves travel through the air, some
things they encounter cause the signal to be
reflected
Buildings
Mountains
Automobiles

Reflection
In Fact
Some materials reflect the RF completely
Metal

Some reflect the RF only partially


Wood
Concrete

RF Behavior - RF In The
Environment

Reflection
What Does Than Mean?
Some materials absorb AND reflect RF waves

RF Behavior - RF In The
Environment

Reflection & Absorption


Visual Depiction

Heat

Incident wave
Transmitted wave
Reflected wave

Recap
Free space loss

Due to signal spreading out

Skin effect

Signal on surface of conductor

Absorption

Due to the environment

Reflection

Signal direction changes

2. RF Behavior
Loss & Gain
Decibels
Bandwidth
RF in the Environment

Match

Match
Impedance
Components have impedance
Conductors have impedance
Conductors connect components

RF Behavior - Match

Match
Impedance
Components & conductors should have the same
impedance
50 ohms

But they don't


Their impedances
don't "match"

RF Behavior - Match

Match
Why Don't Things Match?
Different standards
50 ohms in the RF world
75 ohms in the video world

Impedance varies
Over frequency
From unit to unit

RF Behavior - Match

Mismatch
What Are The Consequences?
The RF signal gets reflected
The bigger the mismatch, the greater the reflection

If too much signal gets reflected


Adverse effects

RF Behavior - Match

Mismatch
Good match

Incident signal

Reflected signal
Poor match
Incident signal

Reflected signal

RF Behavior - Match

Match
How Is Match Measured?
Two ways
VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio)
Return loss (RL)

RF Behavior - Match

VSWR
VSWR

Meaning

1.0:1

Perfect match

1.4:1

Excellent match

2.0:1

Good match

10:1

Poor match

:1

Special cases
RF Behavior - Match

VSWR Special Cases


:1 (VSWR is infinite)
1) Perfect open
Conductor/component left unattached

2) Perfect short
Conductor/component short circuited

ALL RF ENERGY REFLECTED

RF Behavior - Match

Return Loss
Meaning
"The loss that the return (reflected) signal
experiences"
Big RL = small reflected signal
Small RL = big reflected signal

Measured in dB
Just like insertion loss

RF Behavior - Match

Good
Bad

Return Loss
Good match

Incident signal
High RL
Reflected signal
Poor match
Incident signal
Low RL
Reflected signal

RF Behavior - Match

Return Loss vs VSWR


VSWR

Return Loss

1.0:1

1.4:1

15.6 dB

2.0:1

9.5 dB

10:1

1.7 dB

:1

0 dB
RF Behavior - Match

Mismatch
How To Deal With Mismatch
If the mismatch is small
Do nothing

If the mismatch is large


Impedance matching circuit

RF Behavior - Match

Impedance Matching
Impedance matching circuit
75 ohms

50 ohms

RF Behavior - Match

RF Behavior
The end

Module 1
1. The Basics
2. RF Behavior

3. Modulation
4. Noise

3. Modulation
How RF Carries Information
AM

FM

PM

QAM

3. Modulation
How RF Carries Information
AM

FM

PM

QAM

How RF Carries Information


Wireless Communications
Transmitting information wirelessly requires
TWO different signals
1. Information signal (analog or digital)
2. RF signal (sine wave) or "carrier"

How RF Carries Information


Modulation
Combining an information
signal and a carrier signal

How RF Carries Information


Modulation Result
One signal - the carrier
The carrier is manipulated to reflect the
imparted information
Amplitude
Frequency
Phase

Modulation - How RF Carries


Information

How RF Carries Information


Demodulation
Separating the information signal
from the carrier
The carrier is then"discarded"

Modulation - How RF Carries


Information

How RF Carries Information


How Is It Done?
Modulator: An RF component that combines an
information signal & a carrier
Demodulator: An RF component that separates
an information signal from a carrier

Modulation - How RF Carries


Information

How RF Carries Information


Where Is It Done?

Modulation - How RF Carries


Information

How RF Carries Information


Where Is It Done?

Modem
Modulation - How RF Carries
Information

How RF Carries Information


Where Is It Done?

Radio
Modulation - How RF Carries
Information

3. Modulation
How RF Carries Information

AM

FM

PM

QAM

Amplitude Modulation (AM)


Definition
Imparting information onto a sine wave by
varying the amplitude

Amplitude

Amplitude Modulation (AM)


Types
AM: "Analog" amplitude modulation
Information signal is analog

BASK: Binary amplitude shift keying"digital" amplitude modulation


Information signal is digital

Modulation - AM

AM
Example

Modulation - AM

BASK
Example

Modulation - AM

3. Modulation
How RF Carries Information
AM

FM

PM

QAM

Frequency Modulation (FM)


Definition
Imparting information onto a sine wave by
varying the frequency

Frequency

Frequency Modulation (FM)


Types
FM: "Analog" frequency modulation
Information signal is analog

FSK: Frequency shift keying"digital" frequency modulation


Information signal is digital

Modulation - FM

FM
Example

Modulation - FM

FSK
Example

Modulation - FM

3. Modulation
How RF Carries Information
AM

FM

PM

QAM

Phase Modulation (PM)


Definition
Imparting information onto a sine wave by
shifting the phase of successive sine waves
Phase

90

360
0

180
270

Phase Shift
What Is It?
Successive sine
waves starting at a
different point on
the sine wave
Measured with
respect to the
previous sine wave

Modulation - PM

90 Phase Shift
In Action

Phase shift:

90 Phase Shift
In Action

Phase shift:

90 Phase Shift
In Action

Phase shift:

90 Phase Shift
In Action

Phase shift:

90 Phase Shift
In Action

Phase shift:

90 Phase Shift
In Action

Phase shift:

90

Phase Modulation (PM)


Types
PM is digital modulation ONLY
Information signal is digital

Many different types


BPSK: Binary phase shift keying
QPSK: Quadrature phase shift keying

Modulation - PM

Phase Shift
How Does It Represent Digital Info?
"0" = 0 phase shift
"1" = 180 phase shift
Phase shift:

Digital bit:

Phase Shift
How Does It Represent Digital Info?
"0" = 0 phase shift
"1" = 180 phase shift
Phase shift:

Digital bit:

180

BPSK
Example

Modulation - PM

Phase Shift
It Can Represent More Information
"00" = 0 shift
"01" = 90 shift
Phase shift:

Digital bit:

"10" = 180 shift


"11" = 270 shift
0

00

Phase Shift
It Can Represent More Information
"00" = 0 shift
"01" = 90 shift

"10" = 180 shift


"11" = 270 shift

Phase shift:

90

Digital bit:

01

Phase Shift
It Can Represent More Information
"00" = 0 shift
"01" = 90 shift
Phase shift:

Digital bit:

"10" = 180 shift


"11" = 270 shift
180

10

Phase Shift
It Can Represent More Information
"00" = 0 shift
"01" = 90 shift
Phase shift:

Digital bit:

"10" = 180 shift


"11" = 270 shift
270

11

QPSK
Example

Modulation - PM

QPSK
Example

Modulation - PM

QPSK
Example

Modulation - PM

QPSK
Example

Modulation - PM

QPSK
Example

Modulation - PM

3. Modulation
How RF Carries Information
AM

FM

PM

QAM

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)

What Is It?
A combination of amplitude shift keying and
phase shift keying
For digital information signals only

Several different kinds


QAM-8
QAM-16
QAM-64
Modulation - QAM

QAM - 8
How Does It Represent Digital Info?
Amplitude shift keying (BASK)
"0" = low
"1" = high

Phase shift keying (QPSK)

"00" = 0
"01" = 90
"10" = 180
"11" = 270
Modulation - QAM

QAM - 8
Example

Modulation - QAM

QAM - 8
Example

Modulation - QAM

QAM - 8
Example

Modulation - QAM

Spectral Efficiency
Bits/Second/Hertz
BPSK: 1 bps/Hz
QPSK: 2 bps/Hz
QAM: 3 bps/Hz

Recap
Modulation

Analog

Digital

AM

AM

BASK

FM

FM

FSK

PM

N/A

BPSK
QPSK

QAM

N/A

BASK+
QPSK

Modulation
The end

Module 1
1. The Basics
2. RF Behavior
3. Modulation

4. Noise

4. Noise
What Is It?
Link Budget

Noise Effects

4. Noise
What Is It?
Link Budget

Noise Effects

Noise
What Is It?
Signal disturbance
Unwanted signal(s), also called interference

Where Does It Come From?


Environment
Man made

Noise - What is it

Noise
Types
AM: Unwanted changes to the amplitude
Predominantly environment

FM: Unwanted changes to the frequency


Predominantly hardware

PM: Unwanted changes to the phase


Predominantly hardware

Noise - What is it

Noise
A Function Of Bandwidth & Temperature
Noise density
"Noise floor
Thermal noise

-120 dBm
Noise - What is it

4. Noise
What Is It?

Link Budget
Noise Effects

Signal To Noise Ratio (S/N)


Definition
A measure (in dB) of how much bigger the
received signal is relative to the noise floor
AM: 40-50 dB
FM: 20-30 dB
Digital: 10-20 dB

Receiver sensitivity

Noise - Link budget

Link Budget
Power out

40 dBm

Free space loss

120 dB
-80 dBm

Absorption

10 dB
S/N

Noise floor

-90 dBm
30 dB
-120 dBm

Link Budget
Noise Spectrum

Signal Spectrum

Shannons Theorem
Maximum Data Rate
A function of bandwidth
A function of S/N ratio

Noise - Link budget

4. Noise
What Is It?
Link Budget

Noise Effects

Noise Effects
Analog AM

No noise

Noise - Noise Effects

Noise Effects
Analog AM

Noise

Noise - Noise Effects

Noise Effects
Digital AM

No noise

Noise - Noise Effects

Noise Effects
Digital AM

Noise

Noise - Noise Effects

Noise Effects
Phase Modulation
Unwanted phase shift (e.g., 45)
BPSK
0
1

QPSK
0
45
180

00
01

0
45
90

Shows up as increased Bit Error Rate (BER)


Noise - Noise Effects

Noise
The end

Module 1 - Introduction To RF
The end