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SQL Loader

SQL Loader
Overview:
SQL LOADER is an Oracle utility used to load data into table given a datafile
which has the records that need to be loaded. SQL*Loader takes data file, as
well as a control file, to insert data into the table. When a Control file is
executed, it can create Three (3) files called log file, bad file or reject file,
discard file.

Log file tells you the state of the tables and indexes and the number of logical
records already read from the input datafile. This information can be used to
resume
the
load
where
it
left
off.
Bad file or reject file gives you the records that were rejected because of
formatting
errors
or
because
they
caused
Oracle
errors.
Discard file specifies the records that do not meet any of the loading criteria
like when any of the WHEN clauses specified in the control file. These records
differ from rejected records
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SQL Loader
Structure of the data file:
The data file can be in fixed record format or variable record format.
Fixed Record Format would look like the below. In this case you give a specific
position where the Control file can expect a data field:
7369 SMITH

CLERK

7902 12/17/1980

800

7499 ALLEN

SALESMAN 7698 2/20/1981

1600

7521 WARD

SALESMAN 7698 2/22/1981

1250

7566 JONES

MANAGER 7839 4/2/1981

2975

7654 MARTIN

SALESMAN 7698 9/28/1981

1250

SQL Loader
Structure of the data file:
Variable Record Format would like below where the data fields are
separated by a delimiter.
Note: The Delimiter can be anything you like. In this case it is |

1196700|9|0|692.64
1378901|2|3900|488.62
1418700|2|2320|467.92

1418702|14|8740|4056.36
1499100|1|0|3.68

SQL Loader
Structure of a Control file:
Sample CTL file for loading a Variable record data file:
LOAD DATA
INFILE $FILE

Specify the data file path and name

APPEND

type of loading (INSERT, APPEND, REPLACE,


TRUNCATE

INTO TABLE APPS.BUDGET the table to be loaded into


FIELDS TERMINATED BY |
datafile

Specify the delimiter if variable format

OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY the values of the data fields may be


enclosed in

SQL Loader
Structure of the control file:
TRAILING NULLCOLS
record treated as null

columns that are not present in the

(ITEM_NUMBER TRIM(:ITEM_NUMBER), Can use all SQL functions on


columns
QTY
DECIMAL EXTERNAL,
REVENUE
DECIMAL EXTERNAL,
EXT_COST
DECIMAL EXTERNAL TERMINATED BY WHITESPACE
(TRIM(:EXT_COST)) ,
MONTH
to_char(LAST_DAY(ADD_MONTHS(SYSDATE,-1)),DD-MONYY) ,
DIVISION_CODE CONSTANT AUD Can specify constant value instead of
Getting value from datafile
)

SQL Loader
Structure of the data file:
LOADDATA statement is required at the beginning of the control file.
INFILE: INFILE keyword is used to specify location of the datafile or datafiles.

INFILE* specifies that the data is found in the control file and not in an
external file. INFILE $FILE, can be used to send the filepath and filename as a
parameter when registered as a concurrent program.
INFILE /home/vision/kap/import2.csv specifies the filepath and the
filename.

SQL Loader
Structure of the data file:
LOADDATA statement is required at the beginning of the control file.
INFILE: INFILE keyword is used to specify location of the datafile or
datafiles.
Example where datafile is an external file:

LOAD DATA
INFILE /home/vision/kap/import2.csv
INTO TABLE kap_emp
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ,
( emp_num, emp_name, department_num, department_name )

SQL Loader
Example where datafile is in the Control file:
LOAD DATA
INFILE *
INTO TABLE kap_emp
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ,
( emp_num, emp_name, deptno , deptname)
BEGINDATA

7369,SMITH,7902,Accounting
7499,ALLEN,7698,Sales
7521,WARD,7698,Accounting
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SQL Loader
Example where file name and path is sent as a parameter when registered as
a concurrent program
LOAD DATA
INFILE $FILE
INTO TABLE kap_emp

FIELDS TERMINATED BY ,
( emp_num, emp_name, department_num, department_name )

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SQL Loader
TYPE OF LOADING:
INSERT If the table you are loading is empty, INSERT can be used.
APPEND If data already exists in the table, SQL*Loader appends the new
rows to it. If data doesnt already exist, the new rows are simply loaded.
REPLACE All rows in the table are deleted and the new data is loaded

TRUNCATE SQL*Loader uses the SQL TRUNCATE command


INTOTABLEis required to identify the table to be loaded into. In the above
example INTO TABLE APPS.BUDGET, APPS refers to the Schema and
BUDGET is the Table name.
FIELDS TERMINATED BY specifies how the data fields are terminated in the
datafile.(If the file is Comma delimited or Pipe delimited etc)

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SQL Loader
OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY specifies that data fields may also be enclosed
by quotation marks.
TRAILINGNULLCOLS clause tells SQL*Loader to treat any relatively positioned
columns that are not present in the record as null columns.
Loading a fixed format data file:
LOAD DATA
INFILE sample.dat
INTO TABLE emp

( empno

POSITION(01:04) INTEGER EXTERNAL,

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SQL Loader
ename
job
mgr
sal

POSITION(06:15) CHAR,
POSITION(17:25) CHAR,
POSITION(27:30) INTEGER EXTERNAL,
POSITION(32:39) DECIMAL EXTERNAL,

comm

POSITION(41:48) DECIMAL EXTERNAL,

deptno

POSITION(50:51) INTEGER EXTERNAL)

Steps to Run the SQL* LOADER from UNIX:

At the prompt, invoke SQL*Loader as follows:


sqlldr USERID=scott/tiger@<SID> CONTROL=<control filename> LOG=<Log
file

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SQL Loader
name>
SQL*Loader loads the tables, creates the log file, and returns you to the
system prompt. You can check the log file to see the results of running the
case study.
Register as concurrent Program:
Place the Control file in $CUSTOM_TOP/bin.
Define the Executable. Give the Execution Method as SQL*LOADER.
Define the Program. Add the Parameter for FILENAME.

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SQL Loader
Skip columns:
You can skip columns using the FILLER option.
Load Data

TRAILING NULLCOLS
(
name Filler,
Empno ,
sal
)
here the column name will be skipped

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