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Bond Valuation

Learning Module

Definitions

Par or Face Value

The amount of money that is paid to the bondholders at


maturity. For most bonds this amount is $1,000. It also generally
represents the amount of money borrowed by the bond issuer.

Coupon Rate

The coupon rate, which is generally fixed, determines the


periodic coupon or interest payments. It is expressed as a
percentage of the bond's face value. It also represents the
interest cost of the bond to the issuer.

Definitions

Coupon Payments

The coupon payments represent the periodic interest payments


from the bond issuer to the bondholder. The annual coupon
payment is calculated by multiplying the coupon rate by the
bond's face value. Since most bonds pay interest semiannually,
generally one half of the annual coupon is paid to the
bondholders every six months.

Maturity Date

The maturity date represents the date on which the bond


matures, i.e., the date on which the face value is repaid. The
last coupon payment is also paid on the maturity date.
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Definitions

Original Maturity

Remaining Maturity

The time from when the bond was issued until its maturity date.

The time currently remaining until the maturity date.

Call Date

For bonds which are callable, i.e., bonds which can be redeemed
by the issuer prior to maturity, the call date represents the
earliest date at which the bond can be called.
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Definitions

Call Price

The amount of money the issuer has to pay to call a callable


bond (there is a premium for calling the bond early). When a
bond first becomes callable, i.e., on the call date, the call price
is often set to equal the face value plus one year's interest.

Required Return

The rate of return that investors currently require on a bond.

Definitions

Yield to Maturity

The rate of return that an investor would earn if he bought the


bond at its current market price and held it until maturity.
Alternatively, it represents the discount rate which equates the
discounted value of a bond's future cash flows to its current
market price.

Yield to Call

The rate of return that an investor would earn if he bought a


callable bond at its current market price and held it until the
call date given that the bond was called on the call date.
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Bond Valuation

Bonds are valued using time value of money


concepts.

Their coupon, or interest, payments are


treated like an equal cash flow stream
(annuity).

Their face value is treated like a lump sum.


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Example

Assume Hunter buys a 10-year bond from the KLM


corporation on January 1, 2003. The bond has a face
value of $1000 and pays an annual 10% coupon. The
current market rate of return is 12%. Calculate the price
of this bond today.

1.

Draw a timeline

?
?

$1000
+
$100
$100
$100
$100
$100
$100
$100
$100
$100 $100

Example
2.

First, find the value of the coupon stream

Remember to follow the same approach you use


in time value of money calculations.

You can find the PV of a cash flow stream

Or, you can find the PV of an annuity

PV = $100/(1+.12)1 + $100/(1+.12)2 + $100/(1+.12)3


+ $100/(1+.12)4 + $100/(1+.12)5 + $100/(1+.12)6 +
$100/(1+.12)7 + $100/(1+.12)8 + $100/(1+.12)9+
$100/(1+.12)10
PVA = $100 * {[1-(1+.12)-10]/.12}

PV = $565.02
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Example
Find the PV of the face value

3.

PV = CFt / (1+r)t
PV = $1000/ (1+.12)10
PV = $321.97

Add the two values together to get the total PV

4.

$565.02 + $321.97 = $886.99

Alternatively, on your calculator

PMT = 100
FV = 1000
n = 10
i = 12
PV = ?
Note that if the payments had been semiannual,
PMT=50, FV=1000, n=20, i=6, PV=?=$885.30.

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Realized Return

Sometimes you will be asked to find the realized rate


of return for a bond.

This is the return that the investor actually realized


from holding a bond.

Using time value of money concepts, you are solving


for the required rate of return instead of the value of
the bond.
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Example

Doug purchased a bond for $800 5-years ago and he sold


the bond today for $1200. The bond paid an annual 10%
coupon. What is his realized rate of return?
n

PV = S [CFt / (1+r)t]
t=0

$800 = [$100/(1+r) + $100/(1+r)2 + $100/(1+r)3 +


$100/(1+r)4 + $100/(1+r)5] + [$1200/(1+r)5]
To solve, you need use a trail and error approach. You
plug in numbers until you find the rate of return that solves
the equation.
The realized rate of return on this bond is 19.31%.
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Example

This is much easier to find using a financial calculator:


n=5
PV = -800
FV = 1200
PMT = 100
i = ?, this is the realized rate of return on this bond
Note that if the payments had been semiannual,
n=10, PV=-800, FV=1200, PMT=50, i=?=9.47%. Thus, the
realized return would have been 2 * 9.47% = 18.94%.

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