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Urban Design

Need, scope and objectives

Urban Design
The art of creating and shaping cities and towns.

Urban
design

Two dimensional
Regional Planning:-Master
planning, development plans,
Town planning schemes
Physical and Non-Physical
planning

Planning

3d manifestation of
master plan
Futuristic, both
planning and
architecture
Multiple client
population of an area
Less control, No
fixed timeframe,
continuing process
Geographical area,
no defined
boundaries, system
network with a set of
objectives
Works with various
layers human,
built/open,
Networking,
Communication and
their

Single client
Effective control and time
bound
Smaller scale and defined
area
Determinant process

Architecture

Urban designer

Convert the
regional planning
guidelines to
reality

Determining the
appropriate land
uses, movement,
pattern, scale,
architectural level
details, openings
and visual aspects

Maintaining the
character of the
city

Areas designed
according to the
activity and life
pattern.

Objectives

Establish a comprehensive spatial development framework and a


set of development policies.

A direct response to peoples needs and creating a livable


environment. It covers all dimensions like visual, perceptual, social,
cultural, historic and symbolic resources of community.

Increase the functional efficiency by relating the circulation, urban


activities and use of land to physical form.

Accommodating urban growth and should be capable of adapting


variables of unpredicted growth.

Economically feasible solutions, geared to incremental


implementation over a substantial time period.

Solving the environmental deficiencies that exist in terms of physical,


visual, perceptual, social and psychological terms.

Functions

Analytical function: provides survey and identification of visual and other


human sensory qualities, development qualities, functional qualities,
opportunities and limitations of a particular urban place.

An explicit articulation of design objectives, design evaluation criteria.

Generation of alternative concepts for future development as well as full


illustrative images of desirable and possible consequences.

Development of standards, incentives, policies, control techniques and


priority programs to achieve the qualitative values proposal.

Provisions for verbal statements, illustrative graphics and communication


media capable of engaging all levels of community and choice of options of
future form.

Integration of all elements of planning process, continuous revision


possibilities to adapt to urban growth variables.

Scope
Urban
design
Regional

Metropolitan

City level

District level

Sector level

Project level

Applicability of UD can be classified


according to elements of physical design like
residential areas, neighborhood planning,
circulation system, river front development.
Outcome of UD project may be a completed
project with detail design of building or it can
be a framework for overall growth conceived
as self adjusting and continuously changing
process.
Implications of Urban design policy
framework guidelines for development and
detail implementary measures including
building and site.
Includes public participation, decision
making, Research function.

Urban design at Regional level


Classification of Natural and
Man-made things
Topographic analysis
Identifying developing regions

Networks
Wilderness , Flora and Fauna,
Landscape

Tourism, Infrastructure
Preservation, Conservation,
Revitalization of the region

Image source: Google,


Alba Iulia - Sebes - Teius, Territorial Development Project ~ Romania,
2008

Urban design at Metropolitan level


Development plans,
Structure plans(workable
solutions), Transportation
networking, Activity and Land
use
Overall form of the city
open, built, green areas,
Infrastructure
Hierarchy of spaces (open
areas)
Transporrtation Nodes,
Links, Hierarchy of roads,
highways, modes of transport,
generators, new intrusions
Approach to city and
Imageability
Views and Vistas, Skyline
Special sites- Typology,
development regulations,
Guidelines

Image source: Google,


Six Urban districts of Tehran

Urban design at City level


Planning for urban open spaces Use, hierarchy, types
Pedestrian circulation Formal/informal/Processional/Casual, Activity,
Connecting other modes of transport, Accent, Event
Landscaping Preservation of natural resources, planting of trees
Urban lighting Quantitative and Qualitative aspects
Street furniture
Urban art and sculpture Landmarks, sense of scale
Street hardware

Image source: Google,


Mitchell street Central
Hermanus, Capetown

Urban design at City level


Rehabilitating old Neighborhood
Historic preservation
Suburban Centers and development and New towns

Image source: Google,


Belfast City Centre Public Realm P

Urban design

Urban design involves the arrangement and design of buildings, public


spaces, transport systems, services, and amenities.

Urban design is the process of giving form, shape, and character to


groups of buildings, to whole neighborhoods, and the city.

It is a framework that orders the elements into a network of streets,


squares, and blocks.

Urban design blends architecture, landscape architecture, and city


planning together to make urban areas functional and attractive.

Urban design is about making connections between people and places,


movement and urban form, nature and the built fabric.

Urban design draws together the many strands of place-making,


environmental stewardship, social equity and economic viability into the
creation of places with distinct beauty and identity.

Urban design is derived from but transcends planning and transportation


policy, architectural design, development economics, engineering and
landscape. It draws these and other strands together creating a vision for
an area and then deploying the resources and skills needed to bring the
vision to life.
Content source: www.urban design.org

Elements of Urban design

Urban design involves the arrangement and design of buildings, public


spaces, transport systems, services, and amenities.

Urban design is the process of giving form, shape, and character to


groups of buildings, to whole neighborhoods, and the city.

It is a framework that orders the elements into a network of streets,


squares, and blocks.

Urban design blends architecture, landscape architecture, and city


planning together to make urban areas functional and attractive.

Urban design is about making connections between people and places,


movement and urban form, nature and the built fabric.

Urban design draws together the many strands of place-making,


environmental stewardship, social equity and economic viability into the
creation of places with distinct beauty and identity.

Urban design is derived from but transcends planning and transportation


policy, architectural design, development economics, engineering and
landscape. It draws these and other strands together creating a vision for
an area and then deploying the resources and skills needed to bring the
vision to life.

Conducting a Urban Design Survey


A.

City as a whole
1. Shape of the city
2. Size of the city
3. Access to city

B.

City as parts

C.

Micro level analysis of each area


1. Topography cliff, slope, hilly etc
2. Microclimate Humidity, Sun, Rainfall, Wind etc

3. Shape Physical outline in horizontal ( Radio-centric, Star, Linear, Ring,


Rectilinear, Branched)
4. Size Population and Physical extent, Density
5. Pattern, Texture and Grain
6. Pathways or Roads, Landmarks, Districts, Nodes, Edges (Imageability
aspects)
7. Open spaces
8. Views and Vistas
9. Magnets, generators or Linkages
10. Special activity centres and Overall activity structure

Conducting a Urban Design Survey


11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Hubs of intense visual experience


Pedestrian areas
Urban Signage
Point of Conflict
Historic special districts
Community structure ethnic groupings
Urban Blighted areas
Entry points
Non physical aspects like festivals, emotional aspects, intangible elements