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Ammonia Measurement using UV

absorption
Presented By
Amal Agharkar

Open path spectroscopy gives better alternative to many sampling instruments as it eliminates the necessity of inlets. . Differential absorption can be measured over an open path to calculate the gas concentration using BeerLambert’s law. Absorption of electromagnetic waves cause excitation in the gas molecules.Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy  Ammonia measurement is challenging due to     interference of the low concentration stray gases Measurement of ammonia with sampling instruments is not reliable as ammonia adheres to the surface of the inlet depending upon the concentration in the inlet stream and on the inlet wall.

optical path length.radiation intensity without absorbers. Io(λ) .concentration of absorber i – Each species that absorbs over the wavelength of interest .wavelength. Hence it is important to know the contribution of the trace gases in the radiation attenuation I(λ)= I0(λ)exp[-L x Σiσi(λ)x ci ] Where.Modified Beer-Lambert’s law  By measuring spectral radiation before and after the gas absorption it is possible to find out the gas concentration using the Beer-Lambert’s law. σ(λ) .  There will be several trace gases which absorb radiation in the similar wavelength range.radiation intensity in the presence of absorbers.absorption cross section of absorber. L . c . I(λ) . λ .

.  Scattering acts as a continuum absorption from the perspective of the instrument and hence extinction coefficients are to be applied to the equation.  We need to take into account Rayleigh’s scattering and Mie scattering.)  In addition to the other atmospheric species there are other atmospheric phenomenon.Modified Beer-Lambert’s law (cont.

It was designed to minimize scattered light and aberrations in the focal planes of the parabolic mirror. 150 W Xe high pressure arc lamp was used owing to its advantages over deuterium lamp in terms of stable.Instrumentation of DOAS system  This method and instrument was designed in Washington     State University hence the method is also known as WSU method.5 cm on each side. . They designed a state of the art measurement system for open path spectroscopy. The spectrograph was a homebuilt double crossed Czerny-Turner with a focal length of 37. low modulation UV output.

The DOAS Instrument .

7 cm retroreflectors.Working of the instrument  The lamp is positioned at the side of the optical path of the     primary mirror and a folding mirror is used to direct the light beam onto the primary mirror optical axis. . The outer annulus of light is directed out over the measurement path to four 12. The light from the retroreflectors illuminates the inner annulus of the primary mirror by translating the light from the outer annulus. The lamp only illuminates an annulus of about 6 cm on the outer edge of the mirror due to another folding mirror used to image the light onto the spectrograph entrance slit blocking most of the light from the lamp. The light is then intercepted by the folding flat and directed into the spectrograph.

Schematic .

Instrument Specifications  The spectrograph has a spectral coverage of about 42 nm  The spectral resolution is 1 nm  The detector is a homebuilt Reticon silicon photodiode array with 1024 pixels with each pixel 25 µm wide and 2.  The detector has an analog to digital convertor which produces a data number (DN) for 1000 detected electrons  The leakage noise of the detector is 0.004 DN s−1 pixel−1  The largest variation in instrument precision is caused by illumination changes on the optics caused by thermals in the atmosphere .5 mm high.

reading depends only on the absolute cross section of the gas  Disadvantages  Spatially averaged measurement.DOAS method  Advantages  In-situ measurement  Wavelength selectivity  Simultaneous measurement of variable species  Self-calibration. Measurement can’t be taken at a point  Not all species can be measured  Not as sensitive as other methods. .

OMA 300  Works on the Beer-Lambert’s principle  It is an integrated monitor which is able to measure about 100 compounds.  It measures intensity of the UV radiation entering the sample and exiting the sample. .

OMA 300 Schematic .

Components of OMA 300 Nova II spectrophotometer: • Solid state build with excellent wavelength stability • CMOS analog circuitry reduces noise and power consumption • 1024-element diode array with ~1nm resolution • Strong light throughput in low UV region • Very low stray light due to design without mirrors or filters • Ethernet interface for remote access .

• From this interface. • HMI offers the user several display choices (e. bar graph). standard numeric display. the unit of concentration for each . trendgraph.Components of OMA 300 Human Machine Interface: • The HMI controlling the spectrophotometer and communication provides a simple.g. touch-screen visual interface. the user can quickly adjust settings like how frequently the Auto Zero is performed.

• The standard flow cell is rated up to 3. .Components of OMA 300 Flow Cell: • The sample (gas or liquid) from the process stream continuously cycles through the flow cell via 1/4” Swagelok tube fittings. • The path length of the flow cell is specified by company engineers to optimize the measurement for the expected concentration ranges of the analytes.000 psi / 150 °C and made from stainless steel 316L for corrosion-proof durability.

Components of OMA 300 Fiber Optic Cables: • Fiber optic cables are used for transmission of UV light through the flow cell. .

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.OMA 300  Advantages  Continuously measures ammonia concentration with wide dynamic range  Totally solid state build with no moving parts — modern design for low maintenance  Additional software benches available for more analytes  Disadvantages  Chances of settling of ammonia on the inlet walls of the instrument affecting the readings.